Unformatted text preview: Sounds of English II, Grammar of English I 4/9/14 2 The IPA Chart -‐ consonants Place of Ar+cula+on Manner of Articulation Bilabial Labio-‐
dental Stop p Inter-‐
dental b Fricative Alveolar t f v θ ð d s z m Lateral liquid ʃ g n w ŋ j Voiced ʔ h ʤ r (ɹ) State of the Glottis: Voiceless Glottal ʒ l Retroﬂex liquid Glide k ʧ Aﬀricate Nasal Palatal Velar 3 The 8 “new” IPA consonants "th" as in “then” (voiced) = [ð] "th” as in “thin” (unvoiced) = [θ] "sh” as in “push” = [ʃ] “zh” as in “measure” = [ʒ] "ch” as in “chin” = [tʃ] "j” as in “judge” = [dʒ] "ng” as in “sing” = [ŋ] "y” as in “yes” = [ j] (and [ʔ] as in “uh_oh”) IPA: Vowels We have a diﬀerent way of classifying vowels because the vocal tract remains relatively open for all vowels, and vowels are (almost always) voiced. The change in vowel positions, compared to consonant positions, looks less distinct: 4 5 Tongue height How close the tongue is to the roof of the mouth during the ar4cula4on of the vowel • The vowel in the word <beat> is a high vowel = [i] • The vowel in the word <bait> is a mid vowel = [eɪ] • The vowel in the word <bat> is a low vowel = [æ] 6 Tongue advancement How far forward or back the bulk of the tongue mass is during the ar4cula4on of the vowel The vowel in the word <heat> is a front vowel
The vowel in the word <hut> is a central vowel
The vowel in the word <hoot> is a back vowel = [i] = [ʌ] = [u] 7 American English vowel system Front [i] beet, peak [ɪ] bit, pick (ignore [e] for now) [ɛ] bet, peck [æ] bat, pack Central [ə] about, sofa [ʌ] but, puﬀ Back [u] boot, due [ʊ] book, hood (ignore [o] for now) [ɔ] caught, dawn [ɑ] cot, don 8 Schwa [ə] vs. Wedge [ʌ] Both are mid central lax unrounded vowels (in the same box) How do we distinguish them? [ə] is the vowel that appears in unstressed syllables (about, sofa) [ʌ] is the vowel that appears in stressed syllables (but, puﬀ) 9 Diphthongs • Diphthongs are two part-‐vowel sounds. They start with one vowel sound in one part of the mouth and move into a second vowel sound somewhere else in the mouth. There are 5 diphthongs in American English • <pints>, <bite> = [aɪ] • <pounce>, <bout> = [aʊ] • <points>, <boy> = [ɔɪ] • <boat>, <grow> = [oʊ] • <bait>, <great> = [eɪ] 10 X-‐ray speech analysis Tongue Velum Lips Man saying the Swedish word “pion” (peony) [pion] http://www2.ling.su.se/staﬀ/ericsdotter/projects/pion_fp11.htm 11 IPA practice 1) <knives> how many sounds are in this word? what are the symbols for each sound? […] 2) <shout> how many sounds are in this word? what are the symbols for each sound? […] 12 IPA practice Write these IPA transcriptions as English orthography 1) [deɪvɪs] 2) [wɛlmən] 3) [pɪknɪk deɪ] Interested in participating in a research opportunity? Current project on “What does a Californian sound like?” which looks at vowels from sound recordings participants record of themselves. More information here: https://sites.google.com/site/
californiapronunciation/ 13 English Grammar Are the following sentences grammatical? I don’t know nothing! I don’t know what he’s playing with. I hoped to gently break the news to her. 14 What is “grammar”? Popular deﬁnition 15 Prescriptivism / Descriptivism Prescriptivism: Prescribes rules about the correct ways to use language. Descriptivism: Describes a language as it exists in speakers’ minds: what “feels” right, or the language actually used and observed. 16 Prescriptivism / Descriptivism Standard language variety: The linguistic structures imposed by prescriptive rules. The variety of language used for public discourse: in newspapers, textbooks, radio broadcasts, lectures, etc. The variety of language spoken by educated middle or upper class people who live in centers of commerce and government. The variety of language that has undergone a process of standardization, through the writing of prescriptive grammars, dictionaries, etc. 17 Origins of prescriptive rules Don’t use double negatives “Je ne veux rien” “No quiero nada” ‘I not want nothing’ Don’t end a sentence with a preposition “Such bitter business as the day would quake to look on.” (Shakespeare) Don’t split inﬁnitives “To boldly go where no man has gone before.” (Star Trek) All these usages have been observed. Which are descriptively grammatical? 18 “I went to see my sister, same father same mother” in African English “It doesn’t worth the price” in Ghanian English “dining leaf” in Indian English (Kachru & Smith, 2008) “funda” in Philippine English “pollie” in Australian English All language varieties (and their grammar) are EQUALLY complex, logical, patterned, and capable of expressing any thought. ...
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- Spring '09