Unformatted text preview: Grammar of English II 4/14/14 2 What is “grammar”? Popular deﬁnition Linguistics deﬁnition Rule-‐governed Constituent structure 3 Constituent structure -‐ ambiguity 4 Constituent structure [[The students] [know [that [[the teacher] lied]]]] 5 What’s a word? How would you deﬁne • If you learn one new word a day… • Are you counting the fact that you learned “banshees” too? • What about the Urban Dictionary word of the day “towel tango”? • Does this count as one word? what a word is? … can our deﬁnition mention “spaces”? … can it be any sequence of sounds? Is “spimble” a word? Why is “I” a word and “K” not a word? 6 Words Morphemes Morpheme: the smallest unit that carries linguistic meaning or serves a grammatical function. Can be a word itself, or can be smaller than a word (cat, -‐ed, carry, -‐al, pre-‐, -‐whelm) How much information goes into a single word vs. many words varies cross-‐linguistically: Single word, many morphemes: Samoan ‘atamamaki’ Many words: English ‘they are wise’ 7 The Lexicon The total set of words and morphemes that we know (the dictionary in our heads), is called our lexicon lexical categories = parts of speech (noun, verb, adjective, preposition…) “…there are concepts that are not lexicalized in English” (Kachru & Smith, p. 108) 8 How to identify lexical categories Options: 1) Closely related forms of the word Nouns: fork/forks, book/books Adjectives: old/older/oldest, tall/taller/tallest Verbs: jumped/jumping/jumps, talked/talking/talks (This type of knowledge is necessary for looking up words in the dictionary) 9 How to identify lexical categories 2) Meaning Nouns: person, place, or thing (book, fork). BUT: these are nouns too… We were impressed by the depth and clarity of the lake. We witnessed the arrival of the troops. The loud talking upsets me. Adjectives: designate qualities or properties of things or processes (pretty house, old man, loud talking). BUT: nouns and adverbs can also do this… We were impressed by the lake’s depth and clarity. They were talking loudly. Verbs: action or state of being (jump, talk). BUT: prepositions can also do this… A fence surrounds the yard. There is a fence around the yard. This jar contains marbles. There are marbles in this jar. 10 How to identify lexical categories 3) How words occur in phrases Nouns: Go together with an article (the, a) to make a complete phrase: the person, a ﬁsh Can be modiﬁed by a preceding adjective: a happy person, the beautiful building Can generally have both a plural and singular form: this building, these buildings; this child, these children What are the nouns in this sentence? I hope that Colbert is still funny when he hosts The Late Show because the new program has a longer length 11 How to identify lexical categories 3) How words occur in phrases Adjectives: Can be modiﬁed by the intensiﬁer very: the very happy person, a very old house Can typically be turned into adverbs with -‐ly: beautifully, unnecessarily Can complete a sentence with the form “X seems ___.” She seems happy; It seems unnecessary What are the adjectives in this sentence? I hope that Colbert is still funny when he hosts The Late Show because the new program has a longer length 12 How to identify lexical categories 3) How words occur in phrases Verbs: Can be modiﬁed by adverbs positioned after them: We ate quickly, The boy talked loudly Can occur with auxiliary verbs: We may eat, They have talked, She is singing Can have past and present tense forms: She ate, she eats; They talked, He talks What are the verbs in this sentence? I hope that Colbert is still funny when he hosts The Late Show because the new program has a longer length 13 Lexical categories Noun: bird, decision, book, wish, explosion, depth, arrival Adjective: happy, beautiful, correct, clear, quick, green, sensible Verb: eat, wish, explode, arrive, sing, clear, remain, summarize Preposition: in, out, of, with, for, on, above, between Adverb: quickly, silently, suddenly, hard, clearly, well, often Determiner: the, a (articles) that, this, these, those (demonstratives) my, your, her, our (possessive determiners) Complementizer: that (as in I hope that you will be there) 14 Prepositions American English: You are insensitive to my problems. You are unconscious of my problems. British English: I am enrolled on CMN/LIN 5. “Non-‐native speakers of English need language qualiﬁcations to enroll on a degree course at a British university in the UK.” http://
england!-‐30251 Ghanian English: We will not be deprived from our rights. (Gyasi, 1991) Indian English: He was accompanied with his best friend. (Nihalani et al., 1979) Model of the spread of English EFL “norm-‐dependent” ESL Second diaspora subjection “norm-‐developing” ENL First diaspora displacement “norm-‐providing” 15 (Kachru, 1992) 16 Articles/Types of Nouns Articles are tricky: Singular count nouns (as opposed to mass nouns) A sword is dangerous. *A sand is dangerous. An oppressive atmosphere is dangerous. Languages diﬀer EFL/ESL “All my furnitures” “The respects they deserve” (Bokama, 1992) 17 Tag questions “You’re coming to class, aren’t you?” “We must be on time, mustn’t we?” “You’re not going home, is it?” (Singapore-‐Malaysian English) (Platt & Weber, 1980) ...
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