Unformatted text preview: Intercultural Competence 4/16/14 2 What’s required “The main challenges of intercultural communication are the linguistic challenges of language learning, the discursive challenges of stereotyping, and the social challenges of inclusion and justice” (Piller, p. 1) 3 What is Linguistics? Linguistics: a systematic inquiry into human language linguistic competence communicative competence 4 What is “competence”? Linguistic competence: the (mostly unconscious) knowledge one has about a language. Linguistic performance: the use of linguistic knowledge in the production and comprehension of language. Chomsky: “Linguistic theory is concerned primarily with an ideal speaker-‐listener, in a completely homogeneous speech-‐
community...” 5 Communicative competence “…A normal child acquires knowledge of sentences, not only as grammatical, but also as appropriate. He or she acquires competence as to when to speak, when not, and as to what to talk about with whom, when, where, in what manner” (Hymes, 1972) Whether (and to what degree) something is: possible feasible Dell Hymes’ theory of appropriate competence performed 6 Types of competence Linguistic competence Communicative competence Asking for a favor Turning down a request Asking someone to sit down •
• Sit down. Please take a seat. Would you please sit down? Would you mind sitting down? •
• Here’s a seat. Do you want to rest? Your legs must be tired. I can’t see. 7 Types of competence Linguistic competence Communicative competence Greetings (At a bus stop) Stranger: Beautiful day. Student: Well no – actually. I think you’ll ﬁnd that there is an approaching cold-‐front bringing heavy precipitation from the north-‐
west, followed by high winds tonight Stranger: Mmmm (says nothing more, turns to face the oncoming traﬃc as if searching for the bus). (Stockwell, 2007, p. 112) (In passing along the corridor) Friend: Alright? Student: No, I’ve just got out of hospital. Had a terrible time of it. The old problem playing me up again. Still-‐ mustn’t grumble I suppose. I’ll tell you all about it… (and so on) (Friend stands for several minutes listening, nodding, and making sympathetic backchannel noise). 8 Types of competence Linguistic competence Communicative competence Intercultural competence “… to what degree is it actually possible, for an expert from one culture to communicate with, to get through to, persons of another culture?” (Gardner, 1962, p. 241) 9 Need for intercultural competence 10 Types of Intercultural knowledge Culture-‐general information Culture-‐speciﬁc information “Parisians are rude and unfriendly.” Intercultural studies 11 “Many of the people I interacted with when visiting Paris were not friendly or courteous to me.” BASIC skills (Behavioral Assessment Scale for Intercultural Competence) Display of respect showing respect and positive regard Orientation to knowledge understanding that your outlook isn’t universal Empathy understanding the world as others see it Interaction management taking turns and maintaining a discussion Task role behavior understanding how tasks get accomplished Relational role behavior building/maintaining personal relationships Tolerance for ambiguity coping with new or unclear situations Interaction posture ability to refrain from evaluative judgments (Koester & Olebe, 1988) 12 Strategy for intercultural competence D-‐I-‐E Description Interpretation Evaluation without judgment explanation of behavior personal reaction My teacher arrived 2 minutes late to class. My teacher doesn’t care about this class. My teacher’s behavior oﬀends me. 13 Strategy for intercultural competence Description: I enter the classroom about 3 minutes before 6:00 and introduce myself to the teacher (Mr. Morris). He is expecting me because the principal talked to him the day before about me. A new student comes in who he doesn't know around this time, and he has me sit next to her at the table in the front right of the room because we are both new. Her name is Jasmine. Interpretation: I was worried that the classroom would be a formal setting and if I was late I would have to stop the teacher giving his lesson and walk past all the students to sit in the back of the class. I wanted to be able to introduce myself to the teacher ﬁrst and not cause a disturbance. I was surprised then to ﬁnd that the classroom was very casual, with the students there working on their own tasks. It is ok, and probably expected that students come in late because they are adults with busy lives! 14 Culture speciﬁc: how it’s been taught Culture paralanguage kinesics proxemics chronemics (Hall, 1960) 15 How it’s been taught -‐b-‐t.net/anm/templates/trade_article.asp?articleid=223&zoneid=3 world/europe/greece/greece.html -‐3.com/tools-‐and-‐courses/tools-‐for-‐business-‐travelers/ 16 “Cultures collide” Training programs for intercultural interaction: “… the manager learns to internalize and/or accept new values, assumptions, perceptions, and to risk diﬀerent and more appropriate behaviors” (as cited in Blommaert, 1991, p. 19). ethnocentric “manages” culture to achieve communicative success one-‐sided transfer of cultural knowledge Westerners*/culture seen as ﬂexible, adaptive, and avoiding conﬂict 17 Outcomes of intercultural contact Assimilation Adjustment Adaptation Culture shock (Lustig & Koester) ...
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- Fall '09