psc103 f99 exam2

psc103 f99 exam2 - P_______________._f, PHYSICAL SCIENCE...

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Unformatted text preview: P_______________._f, PHYSICAL SCIENCE 103 EXAM 2 FALL 99 3; 4‘! yo - ' ’ calculator. If you don’t THE USUAL RULES. You may use one 3 x 5 Inch card of handwritten notes and your I I _ understand a question, please ask me about it. All multiple chorce and matching questions are worth 2 pomts each and are to be answered on a scantron sheet. All short answer questions and numencal problems are worth 3 points each, and are to be answered on these pages. W 1. Which earthquake epicenter was farthest from the seismograph? a: w G? 2. Geophysicists chose to install a lot of expensive equipment near the tiny town of Parkfield, CA because they thought that ‘ a) earthquakes occurred more frequently there than at most other locations. b) earthquakes occurred at more predictable times there than at most other locations. - c) a really major earthquake with a magnitude greater than 8 would occur there. d) this would be a very convenient location to make measurements. e) the food at the local cafe was good. 3. If a p-wave from a nearby large earthquake is traveling horizontally through the ground right under your feet, you will be shaken a) mostly from side to side. b) mostly up and down. c) both from side to side and up and down. 4. Here is a simplified tectonic plate. The direction of motion is shown by an arrow. Where would earthquakes with deep foci occur? 5. What evidence strongly indicates that the Earth’s outer core is liquid? a) The P—wave shadow zone which extends from 105° to 140° from an earthquake epicenter. b) The fact that S-waves are not seen beyond 105° from an earthquake epicenter. c) The fact that P-waves apparently cannot travel through the outer core. d) The reflections of P—waves and S—waves from the boundary between the mantle and the outer core. 6. What type of major earthquake damage happened to older wood frame houses in Coalinga during the earthquake there? We looked at slides of these houses in lecture. a) Many of them fell down completely. b) Often the walls failed and the roofs then fell down onto the floor. (2) Most of the houses were left behind when their foundations suddenly moved sideways several feet. d) They were such strongly built old houses that very little damage was done other than a few brick chimneys which fell down. 7. What is the minimum number of seismograph recordings needed to determine the location of the epicenter of an earthquake with no ambiguity? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 e) 5 15. 16. 17. 18. Read this very carefully. Below I have drawn a compass which has been moved away from any magnets so that the earth’s magnetic field will control the way it points. We are looking down on all of these drawings. As you can see, this compass has its needle pointing toward the top of this paper, which must be toward the magnetic pole of the Earth which is near the NGP. A girl/boy scout would say the compass is pointing north. ® Below I have drawn a bar magnet with N and S poles indicated, and I have drawn a circle representing the same compass which has now been placed near one end of this magnet. In this position the magnet, rather than the Earth's magnetic field, will control the direction the compass points. 0 Which way will the compass needle point? to no ~=>@ me When geologists find layers of sedimentary rock at an angle to the horizontal, they know these layers a) were produced at this angle by sedimentation. b) were produced at this angle by volcanic processes. c) were originally horizontal, and were tilted by forces associated with plate tectonic movement. (1) were originally vertical, and were tilted closer to horizoutal by gravity forces. Different isotopes of an element a) have the same number of neutrons and different numbers of protons. b) have the same number of protons and different numbers of neutrons. c) have the same number of neutrons plus protons. d) are not related in terms of the number of neutrons or protons. A fossil may be useful as an index fossil if the plant or animal was a) widespread geographically and existed during a long span of time. b) widespread geographically and existed only during a short span of time. c) limited geographically and existed during a long span of time. d) limited geographically and existed only during a short span of time. MATCHING Each answer may be used once, more than once, or not at all. 19. 21. 22. The answers for Questions 19 through 20: a) batholiths b) laccoliths c) sills d) dikes e) necks The local volcanic remnants called the Seven Sisters or the Morros, are actually volcanic . The Sierra Nevada Mountains are actually volcanic The answers for questions 21 through 22 are: a) shield volcano b) stratovolcano c) cinder oone d) caldera Mt. St. Helens, in Oregon, is a Mauna Loa, in Hawaii, is a 27. Here is a diagram of a container of liquid which is being heated at one edge to cause convection. Carefully raw the way you think convection currents would flow in this liquid. / heat applied here 28. Alfred Wegener believed that the giant jigsaw fit of the continents, particular South America and Africa, was proof of his theory of continental drift. Wegener also pointed out several other types of important evidence for his theory. Please describe one of these types of evidence. YWLO; sit/DB3 or rch tow id "or a. iii l ti; :""r;r\“‘ii;u l hi3 US W6“ 05; han l- l'lf'rfir‘x, --;;'4{"‘w. {my =,--._:."»-‘..i-\'k 2?; " “1 (1m u 29. Au- 198 has 79 protons in its nucleus, and untd/ecgoes beta decay. Please write out this decay for me. L/V NUMERICAL PROBLEMS. I will forgive the problem you receive the least points for. 30. The p—waves from an earthquake arrive at a seismograph at 9:27 and the s—waves arrive at 9:32. Calculate the distance from this seismograph to the epicenter of the earthquake. Typical p—waves travel 6.0 kilometers per second and typical s—waves travel 3.5 kilometers per second. 31. Calculate how many times more energy is released by a magnitude 8.0 earthquake than bya magnitude 5.0 earthquake. 1;; :11“. 5/- ,: “ .i‘ \/ .. .J t ‘ .' . .21,» 7”".‘3, 1d | VJ“ Flaws» “(if a” ,7 32. After 5 half-lives have elapsed, what is the parent tqdaughte ratio for a radioactive isotope? l i ' ‘ 3. ‘ r 1,2 1. j ' ’l 8. Geophysicists have been working very hard on earthquake predicting methods. Which statement best describes the present situation? a) The location of a future earthquake can often be predicted with reasonable accuracy, but the date when that earthquake will occur cannot be predicted very well. 1’ b) The date of a future earthquake can often be predicted with reasonable accuracy, but the location where that earthquake will occur cannot be predicted very well. F c) Both the location of a future earthquake and the date when that earthquake will occur can often be predicted with reasonable accuracy. t (1) Neither the location of a future earthquake or the date when that earthquake will occur can be predicted with reasonable accuracy. 9. Alfred Wegener’s theory of continental drift was not belieVed because a) he had no evidence that such movement had occurred. b) he had no explanation for what could cause such movement. c) new ideas are almost never believed initially, even though in this case Wegener had both good evidence that m0vement had occurred and a good explanation for what could cause the movement. 10. Here is a chain of volcanic islands created by a hot spot. The arrow shows the direction of motion of the tectonic plate. Which island is the youngest? ———-————a~ o be“ i atde a, 11. A rock sample drilled from recently lava is found to be magnetized vertically, as shown in the diagram. Where on the surface of the earth was this land when the lava hardened? 1“313‘ a) At the earth's magnetic pole which is like the north pole of a magnet. b) At the earth's magnetic pole which is like the south pole of a magnet. c) At the earth’s magnetic equator. d) At the earth’s north geographic pole. e) We can’t really tell. 12. The diagram below shows four wooden blocks floating in water. One of these blocks is a good model of oceanic lithosphere and another block is a good model of continental lithosphere. Which block is the best model of continental lithosphere? 13. Which terms are consistent for a particular type of magma? a) high viscosity, thin and watery, high silica content b) high viscosity, thin and watery, low silica content c) high viscosity, thick and gooey, low silica content d) high viscosity, thick and gooey, high silica content 14. Uniformitarianism is the name for the idea that the geologic forces and processes we observe in action today have shaped our planet slowly over a very long period of time. The first person to propose thls Idea was a) Hutton b) Ussher c) Aristotle d) Wegener SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS. I will forgive the question you receive the fewest points for. 23. The Richter Magnitude of an earthquake is an obvious important factor in the amount of destruction which the earthquake will do to the buildings in a city. Please list three (list gmy three) additional important factors which determine the amount of destruction which will occur in the city. i'lLW/illfi‘i-jl/ I . ‘ a / m at :3hi. 2.-.:1 m Wig... mil C Mm ‘ o. i '- U “t id '2 l," -: ".- it i a; t =/ ' i 24. Here is agimplified “tonic plate. The direction of motion is shown by an arrow. Label a divergent boundary, a convergent boundary, and a transform boundary. .rx ‘1' .' ' \JC/ ,xtw' ‘ \QW/(lfl (in/9Y3 t 25. Use the time-travel graph provided here to determine the distance from a seismograph to an earthquake epicenter. The seismograph indicated a difference in arrival times between the P-waves and the S-waves of 3 minutes. I suggest that you carefully mark the length on the graph represented by 3 minutes on the edge of your 3x5 card of notes by placing that edge along the vertical scale of this graph. Using that length you can find the distance from the seismograph to the epicenter? Try to be accurate. 20 15 it g (the -- 10 \O} 0 ( ‘j 5 5 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 distance to epicenter in kilometers 26. There is some fairly direct evidence from Canada that the theory of isostacy is correct. Please describe this evidence and explain it. x /’6 33. San Francisco is about 330 km north of San Luis Obispo. Since the motion along the San Andreas Fault averages about 2.0 cm per year, eventually San Luis Obispo will be a suburb of San Francisco. Approximately how long will it take for this joke to come true? 33 x AME“? / Wt. 34. The isotope K-40 decays to Ar-40 with a half-life of 1.3 billion years. If the amounts of K-40 and Ar-40 present in a rock sample indicate that only 1/8 of the original K— 40 remains undecayed, how old is this rock sample? ‘ .l 1 : L l f 34‘ M I“ _ <' 3‘ ‘- ‘ . . .1 g ‘ ‘ i ‘ i x _.(\I / Li. 35. Radioactive decay is modeled with 60 six sides dice. The sides are numbered 1 through 6. When we throw all of the dice out of a cup onto a tray a dice is said to have decayed when either side 1 or side 2 is up. Such dice are removed and the survivors are thrown again. Calculate how many throws would probably be needed to represent one half-life for these dice. 2 ’r "L . z. __ \ Jig (Z; 9 3 PO 2 1 'ltt‘fl‘ f :-_ 31(in __ L l \ I ‘ / 2 W4 V2 i a“ w A ‘ l s x. k - 36. There was a mass extinction 250 million years ago which was even more devastating than the mass extinction which did in the dinosaurs. We have been com a. ‘ ...
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psc103 f99 exam2 - P_______________._f, PHYSICAL SCIENCE...

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