ANGEL-transparancies-part-1 - Lecture notes and...

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Lecture notes and transparencies for Organic Chemistry, Chem 210 Spring 2008 The lecture notes are mainly collections of copies of transparencies shown in class. They are divided into four parts, encompassing material between exams. You need to print them out and bring them to lectures. Not all transparencies included in the set will be shown in class. Some material will be illustrated on the blackboard or with the help of models, or other demonstrations. Some transparencies will be shown only in part (enlarged or modified versions) for more appropriate class presentation. Some transparencies shown in class are not included in the sets, and are marked as such. For pedagogical reasons (class discussions) they will be posted on ANGEL after the lecture in which they are presented. Occasionally, as needed, new transparencies, summarizing the material, or providing additional examples and explanations may also be posted. It is recommended that all transparencies and pages of your own lecture notes be kept in a ring-binder and updated on the regular basis. To facilitate record keeping all transparencies are numbered consecutively, although they may be shown in class out of order.
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Chem 210 1 Organic chemistry: old : chemistry of compounds from living organisms current : chemistry of compounds of carbon millions of compounds known
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Chem 210 2 Atoms: hydrogen Hydrogen atom: proton (1 amu; +1 charge) electron (1/1860 amu; –1 charge) van der Waals radius for H is 1.2 Å (I: 2.15 Å) bonding radius in H 2 is 0.37 Å (C–C: 0.77 Å) ___________________________________________ human hair ~10 6 atoms wide pencil line ~10 6 atoms wide HIV virus ~800 atoms wide (~10 8 atoms total) E. coli ~10 11 atoms total
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Chem 210 3 Let the electrostatic force be with you Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of matter. Particles have charges which are integer multiples of the elementary charge i.e. the charge is quantized. (It is also a relativistic invariant: does not change with speed.) There are two types of charges. They are designated as positive (+) and negative (–). Every charged particle is surrounded by an electric field of force (F) such that it attracts any charge of opposite sign brought near it, and repels any charge of like sign. The magnitude of this force and the energy of interactions (E) are described by Coulomb’s law: F= Q 1 Q 2 4 πε r 2 E Q 1 Q 2 4 r = This electrostatic force is much stronger than the gravitational force between two particles and is responsible for holding protons and electrons together in atoms and for chemical bonding. When equal numbers of protons and electrons are present, the atom or molecule (or a macroscopic object) is electrically neutral. A charge in a “system”, means an unequal number of protons and electrons.
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Chem 210 4 Where is the electron?
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Chem 210 5 Waves and Wavefunctions positive values of the function negative values of the function + - (+) and (–) refer to the algebraic sign of the wavefunction
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Chem 210 6 Atomic “s” orbitals 1s 2s 3s Ψ wavefunction (no physical meaning) Ψ 2 electron density (probability of finding electron per volume unit) 4 π r 2 Ψ 2 radial probablity (electron “fraction” in a spherical shell
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Chem 210 7 Atomic “s” orbitals
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course CHEM 210 taught by Professor Maslak,przemyslaw during the Spring '08 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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ANGEL-transparancies-part-1 - Lecture notes and...

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