Distillation and Boiling Points - Desk Chem 36.1 TA Experiment 2Distillation and Boiling Points I Introduction Distillation is a common method used to

Distillation and Boiling Points - Desk Chem 36.1 TA...

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Desk: Chem 36.1 TA: 10/11/05 Experiment 2—Distillation and Boiling Points I. Introduction Distillation is a common method used to purify and/or separate liquids by means of boiling. The process of boiling allows a liquid to enter the vapor phase and ultimately leave the solution. This concept also directs the boiling of separate liquids in the same solution, as a solution with a lower boiling point will enter the gas phase and evaporate first and the rest will follow according to their specific boiling points. Condensation of these vapors, if distilled correctly, will result in an isolated, purified compound. Distillation itself is broken down into two major categories, simple distillation and fractional distillation. Simple distillation is most effective in isolating compounds that have a boiling point difference of greater than 75°C. In this style of distillation, the sample is simply heated to its boiling point and the vapors are allowed to condense. The relatively large difference in boiling points allows the solution with a lower boiling point to distill in order to isolate it with little risk of impurities. Fractional distillation is most useful in isolating compounds with similar boiling points that are generally less than 75°C, as the fractioning column functions as a location for the isolation and separation to occur. In this form of distillation, several evaporations occur to separate whatever compounds may exist in solution and the substances are isolated separately. Four separate experiments were executed regarding simple and fractional distillation of a cyclohexane-toluene mixture as well as an ethanol-water mixture. Within each experiment, the temperature of the vapor was recorded according to the amount of distillate accumulated in order to show the differences between simple and fractional distillation. The following procedure in
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