Example_of_Literature_Review

Example_of_Literature_Review - a , . garw {WW 9/ ‘ (’0?...

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Unformatted text preview: a , . garw {WW 9/ ‘ (’0? a}, C 2 GM” 3%” ((‘MV sensors and UAVs are being used to patrol the borders and keep the homeland safe from attack [4]. Another major push is the miniaturization of these sensors using micro and nanotechnologies [5,6]. Information about these sensors is spread across a broad spectrum of databases and research agencies, and our project would collect this information in a single location for the rest of the class to learn from. Literature Review; £27510 mk Jidu/LCGHL +0 CW3»! ’ Ave/LY; M [L71 LL) , attbt {Uz/l’YUl/fl/LJQQ/L paid/Vb LUV Military sensor technology contains a large field of information with many growing and changing innovations. Technologies are being improved upon everyday and new ones are being WWWW developed to help accomplish whatever goals the military may set forth. Unmanned aerial q M [M vehicles (UAV) are one of the modern day military technologies that really take advantage of sensor capabilities. A wide selection of resources is required to encompass UAV sensor technology and the purposes the sensors serve. A general description of UAV sensors collect 0H . - L r from the literature supported by several applications of modern and developing UAV sensors b . a", XWW will provide an extensive educational background. digital/J LL ‘ I . - 9 » 1wa Military sensors over the years have served many purposes in various forms of application. X , b0. ‘ V30~ Some general purposes of military sensors are GPS vehicle location, area imaging, air missile it“ [gt/“dd 3‘ 9053 decoys, chemical sensors, unmanned aerial vehicles, antennas for radar imaging, seismic sensors [0 M ‘v ‘ yand motion sensors. Military sensors are similar to sensors used in other fields because some Noam 346} “design goals include building the sensors to be very small, cheap to reproduce and to work I ‘ UL ' on efficiently. The efficiency and accuracy of military sensors is especially very important because «35091 V 3 0‘” how well the sensor is working can mean the difference between life and death. Gary Anderson til/K Lgbwb in his technical paper entitled Micro- and nano-sensors and their potential applications in Mac/b milit ada live structures highlights the importance and benefits of sensors being built in n- . / smaller sizes. The paper highlights the potential of using micro-electro-mechanical systems kiwi; /, (MEMS) and nanotechnology for adaptive structures used in military application. These 1/ technologies and their capabilities of creating very small sensors are essential to autonomous and intelligent behavior of military systems by allowing them to analyze and react to the environment around them. Several examples of military sensors are provided as well as sensors that are under development for the future. to Thomas Utsch et. a1. discuss several possibilities for filture military sensors in the paper Design concepts fiir space-bome mum-mission sensors for tactical military needs. Three different sensor ideas are presented for use on spacecrafts that can be used for several missions instead of just one. These sensors perform task such as surveillance, environmental sensing, land and ocean remote sensing, tactical missile tracking and space object surveillance. These sens rs‘ ‘ designs are supported by analysis, several telescope designs, focal plane design, and data processing system design. All of these sensors have not actually been built or tested so this information is simply providing extensive plans for future sensor systems rather then actual working sensors. The source includes many military aerospace professionals that are credible. There are many examples of high-tech sensors that are currently being used by the military. One example is an integrated GPS system outlined by M. Martin and D. Merna in the article DQI-NP Application to the Outrider Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (TUA IO. This system is E?) go utilized by Boeing on its Outride TUAV vehicle to provide precise readings of the vehicles locations. Signals via satellite and a ground control system placed within a high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle are used in this GPS system. It takes a crew six operators and two maintenance mechanics to set up and operate the system autonomously for 72 hours. The system is great for the military because it provides a cheap and accurate unmanned aerial vehicle platform. This sensor system has already been thoroughly tested and the system has proven to be very efficient for the military. Another useful military sensor is being used in area imaging by aerial vehicles to aid in targeting and navigation. The article 3D Object to 2D Image Invariance Technology for Visualization Problems by S. Kushiner and R. Williams discusses how this system is used in the military. The system uses a camera to take 3d images of an area, and then these 3d images are converted into 2d images. Using a computer system these 2d images are compared with previously created maps and images to determine the exact location of the vehicle taking the images as well as targets. This system creates a database of geographical references and coordinates corresponding to the four corners of an image. When a series of these image “patches” are combined the system has successfully created an accurate map of an area. This sensor helped turn UAV vehicles into very effective tactical military tools. A Global Hawk UAV is described by Greg Loegering in The Evolution of the Global Hawk and M4LD Avionics Systems. This unique system uses sensors with its defensive mechanism the Miniature Air Launched Decoy (MLAD). This device is a small jet powered missile designed to piggyback onto the Global Hawk. The sensors and transponders attached to the MLAD attract attention to it rather then the Global Hawk. This is a great way to confuse and distract enemy warning and missile control systems. The MLAD also saturates the enemy air defense command and control network causing gridlock within the decision-making process. The Global Hawk Avionics development had to pass a serie fstrict requirements including a navigation system with accuracy within 20 meters, no margin loss in 200 flights and it had to operate within FAA/ICAO airspace under instrument flight rules (IF R). The paper on the sensor system was written by an employee from the Ryan Aeronautical Center from Northrop-Grumman Corporation and will prove to be a great resource for a sensor system used with an UAV. From a recent volume of Inside the Air Force the article AFRL Enters Final Stages of Development on New Airborne Sensor covers UAV sensor technology that can help detect weapons of mass destruction. This is done by a sensor reading different chemical compositions in eairhAlthough this technology hasn’t been perfected it has proven to be fairly accurate in pic: g of Evidence of deadly weapons. This technology will prove to be a great fight to the war against terrorism. Michael Bruno in Lawmakers, oflicials eyeing drones, aircraft for borders from a Aerospace D 'l & Defense Report also discusses using UAV with sensor technology to help prevent terroxrifln this article using UAVs for border patrol of the United States is discussed. This article discusses the potential for UAVs if they are permitted to help secure the US. borders. Lawmakers are facing challenges to get permission to do this because people do not want their rights infringed upon. Sensors like other technologies must be monitored to make sure their use is not illegal. W ' Vyn.-; ~ 313‘; pig/Vi six/(U if; My” 4 sway}, we r y v c: -. a C, UAVs also have developing technology in SAR antennas. Ande Parker describes the antennas in the article SAR Antennas: Increased Abilities, Smaller Size from Avionics. These antennas take high resolution radar images that have a very broad capturing range. These images are produced at a superior uality, especially for the size of the antenna used. These antennas can be hidden and thereforée) disc gilpresence undetectable. Another developing technology used with UAVs is seismic sensoé.’ ex Pakhomov discusses this upcoming technology in the article New seismic sensors for footstep detection and other military applications. This type of sensor can detect footsteps on the ground. The technology hasn’t been perfected; sometimes the sensors pick up false movements or other interruptions. Once this technology has been fine tuned it will provide superior advantages to the military. Ambushes and intruders or spies would no longer be able hurt the enemy as easy as they once had. These sensors could also be used for security systems or police searches. There are so many UAV sensor technologies that can be utilized for several purposes. Project Plan: To resolve our problem statement we have broken up our research into equal portions. We have used this methodology because we believe if we take a “divide and conquer” approach that the project will go along promptly and efficiently. This approach also allows for the work to be evenly distributed so that no one team member will have a large amount of work. Adatn has been assigned thetfiojeoé’Pjan md@iojec@ersomel. Robert has been assigned the executive summary and the problem statement. Josh has been assigned the literature review and the - M 7 bibliography. The other minor sections were do \ ngther. Halo, UTLLQ b (3/96/91)." 4 A tog /'. léex 3kg, ,MNMwalo/i 1 (Ln, (Pr/z: 7? LES dr- c2.) 530V“ +0 Campy/it“ For activities we have met weekly to catch up with one another. During our meetings we U check to see how much progress each member has made or@ parts of the assignment. If any 013%” group members need help on one of the sections they are working on they can ask each other for ‘ some assistance. Once the meeting is over we head back to our dorms and communicate through I e-mail if needed. $4M": We have employed a wide range of sources fi'om the various libraries available to Tech students while researching our project. These ranged from Lexus Nexus, to IEEE explore. Project Personnel; Adam Depman is qualified to work on this project because he has extensive training using word, excel, and power point. He also has very good organizational skills which will help keeping the project coordinated and appealing. Robert has experience with military aircraft, including a focus on UAVs. He also has experience with leadership, and helps keep meetings on track and productive. Josh has experience with putting together presentations, both the electronic set-up (powerpoints) and the vocal overview. He is able to meet deadlines with work that he is proud of and has experience working with multi-disciplinary teams. We“ éhmmi mike/Whig“ wiL 9Wb1,HrAz/mw5 cine) ...
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