ANTH 1120 - final review - social stratification The...

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social stratification - The ordering and ranking of individuals within society. Those at the top of the hierarchy are generally afforded more power, wealth, prestige, or privileges in a society. Hierarchies can be tested based on race, gender, class, caste, ethnicity, national affiliation, or other factors. marginalization- Is the action of characterizing certain groups of people into forms of social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society. These forms are often the blockage of rights, opportunities, health care, access to resources and employments etc. That are normally available to members of society and which are key to social integration. This is often a result of social stratification that gives members that rank higher more privilege and often those with lower ranking not only no privileges but also powerless and often stigmatizes them as unimportant resulting in them being perceived as less-than members in other social ranks as well as exclusion from the wider society. - Can be based on religion, ethinicity, gender, race etc social/cultural construct - concepts and meanings built up through practice and in everyday life. These are jointly contruscted understandings of the world developed not separately within the individual but in connection with other human beings. This is based on the assumption humans rationalize world experiences by creating socially constructed/ordered realities of the world. An example of this is in approaches to justice . social context - people around and cultural context -shared meaning between people but may not agree on everything what scientists do is also socially and culturally constructed - engineering anthropologist - ans why scientists in diff labs approached same probs differently and what influenced it? postcolonia l- - refers to the time following the establishment of independence in a colony. During this time countries becoming independent faced a lot of struggles. class - A form of identity informed by perceptions of an individual's economic worth or status. It is also a form of social hierarchy. ascribed status - An identity that is perceived as fixed and unchanging because a person is believed to be born with it. In Canadian society, race and gender are often assumed to be ascribed at birth. achieved status - An identity that is believed to be in flux and that is dependent upon the actions and achievements of an individual. Examples of this in Canada are income/education leve l. race/racism - A culturally constructed form of identity and social hierarchy, race refers to the presumed hereditary, phenotypic characteristics of a group
of people. These physical or phenotypic differences are often erroneously correlated with behavioural attributes and racism refers to the act of discrimination and mistreatment of particular racial groups.

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