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See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: A Meta-Analysis of Pornography Consumption and Actual Acts of Sexual Aggression in General Population Studies Article in Journal of Communication · December 2015 DOI: 10.1111/jcom.12201 CITATIONS 151 READS 8,999 3 authors , including: Robert Tokunaga 42 PUBLICATIONS 3,017 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE All content following this page was uploaded by Robert Tokunaga on 11 December 2017. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.
Journal of Communication ISSN 0021-9916 ORIGINAL ARTICLE A Meta-Analysis of Pornography Consumption and Actual Acts of Sexual Aggression in General Population Studies Paul J. Wright 1 , Robert S. Tokunaga 2 , & Ashley Kraus 1 1 The Media School, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA 2 Department of Communicology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 98816, USA Whether pornography consumption is a reliable correlate of sexually aggressive behav- ior continues to be debated. Meta-analyses of experimental studies have found effects on aggressive behavior and attitudes. That pornography consumption correlates with aggressive attitudes in naturalistic studies has also been found. Yet, no meta-analysis has addressed the question motivating this body of work: Is pornography consumption correlated with committing actual acts of sexual aggression? 22 studies from 7 different countries were analyzed. Consumption was associated with sexual aggression in the United States and internationally, among males and females, and in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Associations were stronger for verbal than physical sexual aggression, although both were significant. The general pattern of results suggested that violent content may be an exacerbating factor. Keywords: Violence, Aggression, Pornography, Sexually Explicit Media, Meta-Analysis. doi:10.1111/jcom.12201 Whether the consumption of pornography is associated with sexual aggression risk has been the subject of decades of scholarly inquiry and multiple government investi- gations. Rationales for why consuming pornography should, and should not, increase the likelihood of sexual aggression have been put forward by numerous researchers. Scholars who maintain that pornography is a risk factor point to theories of classi- cal conditioning, operant learning, behavioral modeling, sexual scripting, construct activation, and gendered power (see D’Abreu & Krahe, 2014; Kingston, Malamuth, Fedoroff, & Marshall, 2009; Seto et al., 2010). Scholars who maintain that pornog- raphy reduces sexual aggression risk or that any effect is inconsequential argue for masturbatory catharsis, that pornography must be violent to affect aggression and vio- lent pornography is extremely rare, or that countervailing prosocial influences dwarf Corresponding author: Paul J. Wright; e-mail: [email protected] Journal of Communication 66 (2016) 183–205 © 2015 International Communication Association 183
Pornography and Sexual Aggression P. J. Wright et al.

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