21.PII.Biodegradation.15 - Biodegradation Reactions Phase...

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Biodegradation Reactions – Phase II Introduction Glycosylation Sulfation Methylation Acetylation (Acylation) Amino Acid Conjugation Glutathione (Peptide) Conjugation Summary and Conclusions
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I. Introduction to Phase II Reactions Cofactors (biomolecules) via phase II enzymes fuse with xenobiotic functional groups (from phase I processes) Greatly increase water solubility to further enhance chemical elimination Also commonly detoxify a xenobiotic Phase II reactions are often faster than phase I reactions
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Three General Mechanisms Type I = reaction of a xenobiotic with a activated cofactor (glycosylation, sulfation, methylation, acetylation): xenobiotic + activated cofactor conjugated agent Type II = reaction of an activated xenobiotic with a cofactor (amino acid conjugation): activated xenobiotic + cofactor conjugated agent Type III = both are naturally reactive (glutathione conjugation): reactive xenobiotic + reactive cofactor conjugated agent
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II. Glycosylation (Type I) The major detoxification pathway of all organisms except cats Cofactor: UDP-glucuronic acid
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