Human Anatomy and Physiology II.docx - Human Anatomy and...

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Human Anatomy and Physiology IIModule 1oBloodFunctions of BloodDistributionoTransports nutrients, such as oxygen and glucose along withcellular (metabolic) waste products throughout bodyoTransports hormones throughout bodyRegulationoAssists in maintaining proper pH in body’s tissuesoAssists in maintaining proper fluid volume in circulatory systemoAssists in temperature regulationProtectionoAssists in preventing blood loss and infectionsComponents of bloodFormed elements (45%)oErythrocytes (about 98%)oLeukocytes (portion of the remaining 2%)oThrombocytes (portion of the remaining 2%)Plasma (55%)oWater (90%)oPlasma proteins (8%)oDissolved solutes (2%)Blood compositionThis picture shows the overall volumeof the blood components if they werecentrifuged. Since the formedelements have more density,they reside on the bottom ofthe test tube ad the majorityof blood cells are RBC, hencethe red color of formed elementsHematocrit is a blood test that measuresthe percentage of the column of wholeblood that is composed of RBCs. Its also a common test on the completeblood count (CBC). WBC and platelets form the rest of formed elements.The top layer is the plasma which is about 55% of the overall bloodvolume. The large majority of plasma volume is water (90%) and theremaining volume is the carious solutes.Formed ElementsErythrocytesoRBCoTransport oxygen and carbon dioxideLeukocytesoWBCoProvide immunity against infection and foreign compounds/cells
ThrombocytesoPlateletsoProvide the ability to clot blood and stop blood loss-hemostasisPlasmaWateroComposes about 90% of plasmaProteinsoAlbumin (60%)oGlobulins (36%)oFibrinogen (4%)Various dissolved solutesoContains roughly 100 different dissolved solutes within itoGases, sugar, hormones, waste products, electrolytesPlasma proteinsAlbuminoRepresents about 60% of plasma proteins and are produced bythe liveroFunctionsTransports molecules through bloodAssists in the blood buffer system to maintain narrowblood pH rangeMaintains plasma osmotic pressure within thecapillariesGlobulinsoRepresents about 36% of plasma proteins and are made by theliveroThree different categories: Alpha, Beta, and GammaoAlpha and Beta are transport proteinsoGamma are the antibodies produced by plasma cellsFibrinogenoRepresents the remaining 4% of plasma proteinsoVital protein in the hemostasis process and is converted intofibrin threads that reinforce the platelet plugoErythrocytes (RBC)Erythrocyte structureSmall biconcave discs that are thinner within the centeroProvide a tremendous amount of surface area per volumeMature erythrocytes lack a nucleus and no organellesoRBC do not produce ATP aerobicallyoThey produce anaerobically (without oxygen, because there isno mitochondria)Filled with hemoglobin moleculesoRoughly 95% of cell is hemoglobinErythrocyte functionPrimary job is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules (body’s

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