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Test 2 Notes - The American Experience Test 2 Notes 1800s...

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The American Experience Test 2 Notes 1800s - The Transformation of Early America “Revolution” - Named for significant changes in America Agricultural Revolution Northern Wheat 1837 – John Deere – New, improved, steel plow: strong, durable, replaceable parts Plow more ground, plow more wheat 1834 – Cyrus McCormick – Horse powered mechanical reaper: harvests grain fast 1840 – Pitt – Mechanical Thresher – Separates grain from stalk Inventions created commercial level production of grain crops for market Southern Cotton o 1793 – Eli Whitney – Cotton 'Gin' separates seed from cotton, 100lbs/day commercially buyable, need more slaves for more production of #1 export “Cotton Kingdom” - American South's Economy dependent on slaves, cotton Transportation Revolution Water 1808 – Robert Fulton – Steamboat innovation, commercial boats on Hudson 1809 on Ohio R., 1810 on Mississippi R., 1850 main water transportation 1817-25 – Erie Canal – Canal connecting Lake Erie to Hudson Opened NY state to commercial traffic 1840s – Clipper Ship – Sailing ship with taller masts, faster shipments Land 1820s – Turnpikes – Privately owned, charged a fare, boom impacted travel, trade, more regular travel 1828 – Railroad – Steam powered, B&O Baltimore & Ohio first, year round, fast, Northern boom until 50s, West to East ports Market Revolution Resultant of all the agriculture and transportation advances Industrial Revolution 1790 – Slater's Mill in Pawtucket, RI - Samuel Slater – Water powered machines to turn cotton thread / yarn 1813 – Francis Lowel & Boston Associates Water powered machines, cotton into thread Water powered machines turn thread into cloth! 1822 – Lowell, Mass. - Dormitories for workers to live in 'The Factory System' – A continuous manufacturing process Raw material in > < finished product out Workforce living on site Workforce supervised at work Workforce paid cash wages Becomes efficient way to do things in America 1840s – Sewing Machine 1820 – Food Factories – Tin Canning Industry Communication Revolution Printing
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1820s-40s – Steam powered presses 1825 – Napier Press – 4,000 sheets per hour 1844 – Hoe Rotary Press – 20,000 sheets per hour 1830s-40s – Telegraph – Electric magnetic impulse over wire, Morse code Immigration 1840s – First great wave of immigration Irish Famine, need for work Spoke Gaelic, Roman Catholic NINA – No Irish Need Apply Germans Failed revolutions, needed work German, Roman Catholic Anti immigration clubs forming The Secret Order of the Star Spangled Banner “The American Party” “Know Nothings” - Influenced outcome of elections Defenders of Slavery 1770s – 1830s “Apologists” Slavery is bad but its the labor system --- “SORRY” Thomas Jefferson & Founders 1830-1860 Militant Pro Slavery Defenders Slavery is loving institution
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