Government and Politics Final Study Guide

Government and Politics Final Study Guide - Government and...

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Government and Politics Final Study Guide Chapter 11: Public Opinion -Politicians and the media watch public opinion very closely -There are two visions of citizenship: a) a citizen who possesses political knowledge and an ideology b) a citizen who is apolitical and self-interested -Political socialization is affected by demographics such as: race, gender, life experience, education, and religion -Public influence affects politics greatly Polling o 1000-2000 people is sufficient for national poll o Polling problems: sample bias, trick questions, loaded terminology Poll Types o National Polls o Campaign Polls Benchmark, tracking o Pseudo Polls – Polls found on internet, magazines (not random) Sources of Public Opinion Diversity o Self interest, education, age, gender, race, religion, geographic location Terms: Public Opinion- the collective attitude and beliefs of individuals on one or more issues Public Opinion Polls – the scientific effort to estimate what an entire group thinks about an issue by polling a sample of it Sample – the portion of the population that is selected to participate in a poll Sample Bias – the effect of having a sample that doesn’t represent all segments of the population Straw Polls – polls that attempt to determine who is ahead in a political race Sampling Error – a number that indicates within what range the results of a poll are accurate Benchmark Poll – an initial poll on a candidate and issues on which campaign strategy is based and against which later polls are compared
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Tracking Poll – an ongoing series of surveys that follow changes in public opinion over time Exit Poll – election related questions asked of voter’s right after they vote Push Polls – polls that ask for reactions to hypothetical, often false, information in order to manipulate public opinion Political Socialization – the process by which we learn out political orientation and allegiance (Family, school, groups, social events) Spiral of Silence – a process by which a majority opinion becomes exaggerated because minorities don’t want to speak in opposition Political Generations – groups of citizens whose political views have been shaped by a common event of their youth Gender Gap – the tendency of men and women to have differing political views on some issues Marriage Gap – the tendency for married people to have different political opinions than those who aren’t and haven’t been married Rational Ignorance – the state of being uninformed about politics because of the cost in time and energy Online-Processing – the ability to receive and process information as events are happening Two-Step Flow of Information – when citizens take their political cues from more well informed opinion leaders Opinion Leaders – people who know more about certain topics than we do and whose advice we trust, seek, and follow Online Quiz Answers: According to supporters of pluralist democracy, citizen’s opinions should be reflected through groups that
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2008 for the course PSC 100 taught by Professor Stangl during the Spring '08 term at West Chester.

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Government and Politics Final Study Guide - Government and...

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