Introduction to Human Anatomy and PhysiologyTOPIC 1Blood PressureA proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the healthprofessions.ANATOMY- the scientific study of the body’s structures.- Gk “ana + temnein” meaning “to cut” or “dissect”Gross Anatomy (Macroscopic Anatomy)-The study of the larger structures of the body, thosevisible without the aid of magnification (ex: BRAIN, HEART, LUNGS)Microscopic anatomythe study of structures that can be observed only with the use of a microscope or othermagnification devicesExamples:Cytology -the study of cellsHistology -the study of tissuesRegional anatomy-The study of the interrelationships of all of the structures in a specific body region, such as theabdomen.- Regional anatomy helps us appreciate the interrelationships of body structures, such as howmuscles, nerves, blood vessels, and other structures work together to serve a particular bodyregion.Systemic anatomy-the study of the structures that make up a discrete body system—that is, a group of structuresthat work together to perform a unique body function.Example:A systemic anatomical study of the muscular system would consider all of the skeletal muscles ofthe body.PHYSIOLOGYThe scientific study of the chemistry and physics of the structures of the body and the waysin which they work together to support the functions of lifeThe study of physiology certainly includes observation, both with the naked eye and withmicroscopes, as well as manipulations and measurements.HomeostasisThe state of steady internal conditions maintained by living things.The body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outsideworld is constantly changing.
Homeo(the same)stasis(standing still)STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODYLevels of Structural Organization of the Human BodyThe organization of the body often is discussed in terms of six distinct levels of increasingcomplexity, from the smallest chemical building blocks to a unique human organism.
The levels of OrganizationChemical LevelAtoms are made up of subatomic particles such as the proton, electron and neutron.Two or more atoms combine to form a molecule, such as the water molecules, proteins,and sugars found in living things. Molecules are the chemical building blocks of all bodystructures.Cellular LevelCell is the smallest independently functioning unit of a living organism. Even bacteria, whichare extremely small, independently-living organisms, have a cellular structure.Each bacterium is a single cell.All living structures of human anatomy contain cells, and almost all functions of humanphysiology are performed in cells or are initiated by cells.