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CHAPTER THREE: Job analysis:is a systematic process for gathering, documenting, and analyzing data about thework required for a job.-Job analysis data include:oa description of the context and principal duties of the jobojob responsibilities and working conditionsoinformation about the KSAO required in its performance-In short, it is a method that provides a description of the job and profiles the characteristics or competencies people need to have in order to be successful in the job.-There are three key points to remember about job analysis:1)It does not refer to a single methodology but rather to a range of techniques.2)It is a formal, structured process carried out under a set of guidelines established in advance.3)It breaks down a job into its constituent parts, rather than looking at the job as a wholeKSAOs: The knowledge, skills, abilities, and other attributes necessary for a new employee to do well on the job; also referred to as job, employment, or worker specificationsJob description:A written description of what job occupants are to do, how they are supposed to do it, and the rationale for any required job procedures.-These activities, which focus on identifying a match between a person and a job, rely on accurate information produced by a job analysis. -It helps to ensure that decisions made with respect to these activities are good decisions(i.e., fair and accurate), and that these employee-related decisions can be defended in courts and legal tribunals when necessary. -It is a procedure to assess the goodness of fit between people and jobs in a specific environment. -It provides information about both the duties and tasks that form part of the job (job description) as well as the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics that are needed to perform those duties and tasks successfully (job specification).Knowledge:A body of information, usually of a factual or procedural nature, that makes for successful performance of a task. What a person needs to know to do the job.Skill:An individual’s level of proficiency or competency in performing a specific task. What a person knows how to do.Ability:A more general, enduring trait or capability an individual possesses at the time he or she first begins to perform a task. A person’s capacity to do something or to learn to do somethingOther Characteristics:Personal attributes or characteristics other than knowledge, skills, or abilities that are integral to job performance. Other characteristics may include variables related to an individual’s PersonalityJob specification:The knowledge, skills, abilities, and other attributes that are needed by a jobincumbent to perform well on the job.
-It identifies the job tasks and duties or responsibilities and the related KSAOs; these are the two basic products of a job analysis1)Formally referred to as a job description, a written description of what the people in the job are required to do, how they are supposed to do it, and the rationale for any required job procedures.