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criminaljusticechap1 - Chapter 1 Crime conduct in violation...

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Chapter 1 Crime- conduct in violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government, or a local jurisdiction, for which there is no legally acceptable justification or excuse. Individual rights- The rights guaranteed to all members of American society by the U.S. Constitution (especially those found in the first ten amendments to the Constitution, known as the bill of rights). These rights are particularly important to criminal defendants facing formal processing by the criminal justice system. President Ronald Regan created a “drug czar” cabinet-level position to fight the war on drugs during the rise in the 70s-80s. USA Patriot Act- A federal law enacted in response to terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on Sept. 11, 2001. The law officially titled the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, substantially broadened the investigative authority of law enforcement agencies throughout America and is applicable to many crimes other than terrorism. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act- July 30, 2002- “the single most important piece of legislation affecting corporate governance, financial disclosure and the practice of public accounting since the US securities laws of the early 1930s.” It is intended to deter corporate fraud and to hold business executives accountable for their actions. Individual rights vs. public order- well known in the 1960s and 1970s (the civil rights era). Guaranteeing the rights of criminal defendants. It forms the basis for most policy making activity in the criminal justice arena. Individual-rights advocates- One who seeks to protect personal freedoms within the process of criminal justice. Public-order advocate- One who believes that under certain circumstances involving a criminal threat to public safety, the interests of society should take precedence over individual rights. Justice- The principle of fairness; the ideal of moral equity. Social Justice- An ideal that embraces all aspects of civilized life and that is linked to fundamental notions of fairness and to cultural beliefs about right and wrong. Civil Justice- The civil law, the law of civil procedure, and the array of procedures and activities having to do with private rights and remedies sought by civil action. Civil
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