Chapter Five - Chapter Five Arguments Facts and Opinions...

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Chapter Five Arguments Facts and Opinions Facts – what is the case; something that actually exists; reality; truth Opinions – areas where facts aren’t known; a belief or conclusion held but not substantiated by positive knowledge or proof Recognizing Arguments Socrates: Fats are matters that can be rapidly settled by measurement, counting, or arithmetic Argument - when you support a claim by advancing reasons or evidence to back it up or by citing evidence against some competing claim Because one or more statements are true, some other statement must be true Logic focuses particularly on the relation of the evidence or reasons to the conclusion, and helps us decide whether the claim is adequately supported Inference and Argument In an argument, the claim we want to establish is our first priority, and the evidence is brought in to support it In inference, one begins with a body of evidence or group of facts and the need to desire to get some new piece of information from them Inference – new information logically deduced from given facts or evidence Pieces of discourse As an argument – evidence supporting a conclusion As inference – new information drawn from what is already given Arguments as a Use of Language Language is used to convey information about the world around us Describe an action or a process Express feelings or emotions Command or give orders
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Find things out by asking questions Commit yourself to performing some act (promise) We distinguish arguments and inferences from other uses of language because we want to evaluate them to decide whether they are strong or weak Should we accept or be convinced and add their results or conclusions to our beliefs No “if…then. ..” statement is an argument by itself
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2008 for the course PHIL 101 taught by Professor Carr during the Spring '07 term at Christopher Newport University.

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Chapter Five - Chapter Five Arguments Facts and Opinions...

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