26 Oct. 2007
Response paper #2
Translation of Leviticus 11
The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, tell to the people of Israel: These are the living things
which you can eat among all the animals on the earth. You can eat any animal which has a
division in the horn of its foot, and whose food comes back into its mouth to be crushed again. At
the same time, of those animals, you may not eat the camel, because its food comes back but the
horn of its foot is not parted in two; it is unclean to you. And the rock-badger, for the same
reason, is unclean to you. And the hare, because the horn of its foot is not parted in two, is
unclean to you. And the pig is unclean to you, because though the horn of its foot is parted, its
food does not come back. Their flesh may not be used for food, and their dead bodies may not
even be touched; they are unclean to you.
Anything living in the water, in the seas or rivers, which has fins and scales, may be used for
food. All other things living and moving in the water, in the sea or in the rivers, are a disgusting
thing to you; they may not be used for food, and their dead bodies are disgusting to
you. Anything in the water which has no special parts for swimming and no thin plates on its skin
is disgusting to you.
These are the birds that are disgusting to you, and not to be used for food: the griffon vulture,
the bearded vulture, the black vulture, the kite, the falcon, and birds of that sort, every raven, and
birds of that sort, the eagle owl, the short eared owl, the seagull, all hawks, the little owl, the
cormorant, the great owl, the barn owl, the desert owl, the Egyptian vulture, the stork, all herons,
the hoopoe, and the bat.
Every winged insect which walks the earth is disgusting to you; but of the winged