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gov101chap7,8,10 - Chap 7 Congress Citizen's relationship...

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Chap 7- Congress Citizen’s relationship with Congress Love- their local reps. Hate- when congress doesn’t go by their state, local, or national interests. Hate- people impatient with the law making process. Representation- the efforts of elected officials to look out for the interests of those who elect them. National lawmaking- the creation of policy to address the problems and needs of the entire nation. What is good for us and our local community may not serve the national good. Constituency- the voters in a state or district. Policy representation- congressional work to advance the issues and ideological preferences of constituents. Allocative representation- congressional work to secure projects, services, and funds for the represented district. Pork barrel- public works projects and grants for specific districts paid for by general revenues. Casework- legislative work on behalf of individual constituents to solve their problems with government agencies and programs. Franking- the privilege of free mail service provided to members of Congress. Symbolic representation- efforts of members of Congress to stand for American ideals or identify with common constituency values. Collective responsibility- Congress should be responsible for the effectiveness of its laws in solving national problems. Bicameral legislature- legislature with two chambers. Senate- “cool the passions of the people.” 100 members. 6 year terms. Must be at least 30 (older, wiser). Tries the official for impeachment. House- 435 members. 2 year terms. Must be at least 25. Budget bills originate. Impeaches. Reapportionment- a reallocation of congressional seats among the states every ten years, following the census. Redistricting- process of dividing states into legislative districts. Gerrymandering- redistricting to benefit a particular group. Racial gerrymandering- redistricting to enhance or reduce the chances that a racial or ethnic group will elect members to the legislature. Strategic politicians- office-seekers who base the decision to run on a rational calculation that they will be successful. Incumbency advantage- the electoral edge afforded to those already in office. Coattail effect- the added votes received by congressional candidates of a winning presidential party. Midterm loss- the tendency for the presidential party to lose congressional seats in off- year elections. Descriptive representation- the idea that an elected body should mirror demographically the population it represents.
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Majority party- the party with the most seats in a house in Congress. (Decides the rules for each chamber and gets the top leadership posts. Speaker of the House- the leader of the majority party who serves as the presiding officer of the House of Representatives.
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