John Rawls Justice As Fairness

John Rawls Justice As Fairness - John Rawls Justice As...

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Unformatted text preview: John Rawls Justice As Fairness M ill and Rawls: Part One Like Mill, Rawls contends that it is a fact of human life that, when people take advantage of opportunities to develop and educate their natural abilities, they normally prefer ways of life involving the development , and exercise of their higher capabilities Like Mill’s account of individuality, for Rawls a condition of realizing one’s rational good is the plan of life that is freely chosen by that person. Fundamental Ideas: Part One Four Roles of Political Philosophy Practical Role 1.1-Arises from political conflict and the need to settle the problem of order ( e.g. origin of liberalism in the Wars of Religion)-Goals 1.) uncover agreement 2.) mutual respect Role of Orientation 1.2-reason and reflection (both theoretical and practical ) originate us in the (conceptual) space, say, of all possible ends, individual and associational, political and social.-the work of reason-specify principles to identify reasonable and rationals ends-show how those ends cohere Role of Reconciliation 1.3-find justification in our collective political way of life-political society is not a voluntary association-instead we find ourselves in one (born into it)-what is the outer limit of our freedom (see sec 26) Role of Probing the Limits of Practical Political Possibility 1.4-political philosophy as realistically utopian-the fact of reasonable pluralism limits what is practically possible in democratic societies Society as a Fair System of Cooperation (FSC) Most fundamental idea in justice as fairness-the central organizing idea Two companion fundamental ideas: 1.) Idea of citizens as free and equal 2.) Idea of a well-ordered society-effectively regulated by a public conception of justice Social cooperation guided by publically recognized rules and procedures Includes the ides of fair terms-reciprocity-mutuality Includes idea of each person as a participant’s rational advantage, or good-distinction between the reasonable and rational Role of the principles of justice-specify fair terms of social cooperation-specify the basic rights and duties assigned by political and social institutions-regulate benefits-allot the burdens to sustain it Ideas of a Well-Ordered Society (WOS) I t is implied by a public conception of justice (PCJ)-everyone accepts-known that everyone else accepts (mutually recognized) I t is implied by the ides of effective regulation by a PCJ-society’s basic structure is publically known or believed to satisfy the PCJ Implied that citizens normally have an effective sense of justice A WOS is a society effectively governed by some PCJ Idea of basic Structure (BS) Justice as Fairness (JAF) takes the BS as the primary subject of political justice: by application of JAF and regulation by JAF-does not apply or regulate internal institutions and associations-imposes only limits-JAF is a political, not a general conception of justice Society’s BS-it’s main political and social institutions and the way they hang together as one system of...
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John Rawls Justice As Fairness - John Rawls Justice As...

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