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The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)The Thirty Years' War (1618–48) was the last major European war of religion and the first all-European struggle for power. It was, in fact, a series of wars fought mainly on German soil and was onlypart of a larger struggle to alter the European balance of power.The religious wars that had divided Germany and the Holy Roman Empire as a result of the ProtestantReformation ended in compromise with the Peace of Augsburg (1555), and there was peace between theProtestant and Roman Catholic states of the empire for the next 50 years. In the early 17th century,however, tensions between the rival faiths revived.The Bohemian WarHostilities broke out on May 23, 1618, when a number of Protestant Bohemian noblemen threw two royalgovernors of their country out of the windows of the Hradcany Palace in Prague (an event known as theDefenestration of Prague). It was a rebellion typical of this period by men of great privilege and powerwho saw a threat in the advance of royal power: in this case in the absolutist and Catholic policies oftheir king, Ferdinand of Habsburg, soon to be elected Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. Both sideswere convinced that they were fighting for a holy cause, and both feared not only political defeat butannihilation if the other won. Therefore, both sides looked for allies and widened the conflict,entangling it with the religious and political struggles of their neighbors.The Bohemians appealed to Gábor Bethlen, Protestant prince of Transylvania, who, with theencouragement of his overlord, the Ottoman sultan of Turkey, was hoping to win the crown of Hungaryfrom the Habsburgs. They also elected Frederick V of the Palatinate as their new king. They hopedthat Frederick's father-in-law, James I of England, and his uncle, Maurice of Nassau, virtual ruler of

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Term
Winter
Professor
Mrs. cooper
Tags
The Ambassadors, Thirty Years War

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