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Lecture16_HistoryofLife - The History of Life I A fossil...

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The History of Life I. A fossil timeline: What happened and when? Evolution's "Greatest hits" • origin of life ~3.4-3.8 billion years ago? • first eukaryotes ~1.8 billion years ago • first multicellular organisms ~1 billion years ago • Cambrian explosion: bilaterians (the head), limbs in arthropods; chordates ~520 mya • Silurian-Devonian explosion: origin of land plants ~400 mya: roots, vascular tissue, wood • jaws ~410 • the seed ~360 mya • tetrapod limb ~355 mya • the flower ~145 mya II. Innovations: the origin of tetrapods Tetrapods = the "four-footed" Where did limbs come from? Phylogeny of early tetrapod groups, estimated from similarities in differences in Lungfish-like Tetrapods Ray-finned Panderichthys Acanthostega fish Eusthanopteron Tiktaalik Tulerpeton • map origin of • map origin of • map origin of appendage supported by bones arranged Modern tetrapods
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III. Adaptive radiations Adaptive radiation = the rapid diversification of a single lineage into an array of species that fill a wide variety of ecological niches
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