Lecture14_Phylogenies - Phylogenies*Where we've been and...

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Phylogenies ***Where we’ve been and where we’re going*** First three weeks: evolutionary processes and evolutionary genetics (why do allele frequencies change through time?) Next 3 rd of course: what has evolution produced? • speciation • history of life • diversity of life (bacteria, viruses, plants, fungi, animals, etc.) Final 3 rd : ecology = analyze how species interact with each other and their environment Then, how do all these organisms work …. Biology 200: on a cellular and sub-cellular (molecular) level? Biology 220: on an organ, systems, and whole-organism level? I. What is a phylogeny? What is a phylogenetic tree? A. Definitions: B. Phylogeny = the evolutionary history of a clade Clade (or lineage) = a monophyletic group A monophyletic group = a common ancestor and all of its descendants Phylogenetic tree = a graphical summary of that history (“who’s related to whom”)
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Reading a tree: O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 tip = a taxon (named group) root = base of the tree = most ancestral species branch = population through time
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