Week7_answers - Biology 180 study questions-Week 7 1. Are...

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Biology 180 study questions—Week 7 1. Are fungi more closely related to plants or to animals? Explain the logic behind your answer. Fungi are more closely related to animals than they are to plants. Phylogenies based on analyses of homologous genes show that fungi and animals shared a common ancestor much more recently than fungi and plants or animals and plants. 2. What is the difference between the yeast growth form and a mycelium? Yeast are unicellular; mycelia are multicellular. 3. What does it mean to say that fungi pursue an absorptive lifestyle? They do not make their own food via photosynthesis or capture food by ingesting it. Instead, they absorb nutrients directly from the environment. 4. Describe one of the major types of reproductive structures found among fungi. What makes this structure distinctive? Several different answers—see lectures notes and/or text. 5. How does extracellular digestion occur in fungi? Give an example. Fungi secrete enzymes that digest cellulose directly into dead plant tissues. The enzymes catalyze chemical reactions that break cellulose into its component sugar molecules. These sugars are then absorbed by the fungus and used as food. 6. For other organisms, why is it important that basidiomycetes have the ability to synthesize the enzyme lignin peroxidase? The presence of these enzymes gives basidiomycetes the ability to decompose wood completely--to glucose that can be used by them and by other organisms. Without basidiomycetes, forests will fill with dead and undecomposed wood. There would be little space and few nutrients available for other organisms.
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7. What are mycorrhizae? What is their ecological significance? Mycorrhizae are fungi that live in association with plant roots. They are extremely
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Week7_answers - Biology 180 study questions-Week 7 1. Are...

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