PracticeExamWks1-3 - Bio180 First Practice Exam 1. Design...

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Bio180 First Practice Exam 1. Design an experiment to test the hypothesis that Nemoria caterpillars develop into the twig-like morph if they eat tannins (a molecule in oak leaves). You have a supply of tannins and artificial food (doesn’t contain tannins), and Nemoria eggs from the spring and summer population. State your experimental set- up, and the predictions of the “Tannins R Us” hypothesis and null hypothesis. Question 1 Sample answer Randomly select a large and equal number of spring and summer eggs. Raise half the larvae on the artificial food and half on the artificial food with tannins in it (same concentration as oak leaves). Raise all the caterpillars in a location where all other conditions—light, humidity, temperature, amount of food available—are identical. Record what % of larvae develop into the twig-like morph. Tannins R Us predicts that all or most larvae on the + tannins diet develop into twig-like caterpillars. Null hypothesis predicts no difference between treatments (either none are twig-like or equal numbers become twig-like in the 2 treatments) For full credit (2 points), answer must clearly indicate that: 1. treatments differ in presence/absence of tannins in diet; 2. other conditions that might reasonably affect development are identical (need to mention at least two of these); 3. caterpillar morphology will be recorded; Also, the predictions must be correct. If one or more of these elements is missing, award partial credit (1 point). If the answer is missing or jumbled, award 0 points. 2. Why is the presence of vestigial traits, like the human coccyx (tailbone), inconsistent with the theory of special creation, also known as “intelligent design?” Question 2 Sample answer It is not reasonable to argue that an omnipotent supreme Being (or intelligent designer) would create organisms with traits that have reduced function or no function, unless that Being is thought to be arbitrary and capricious. For full credit (2 points), answer must clearly state that special creation predicts that organisms should be perfect or near-perfect in terms of their adaptations to the environment. If part of the logic is missing or they “kind of have the idea”, award partial credit (1 point). If the answer is missing or jumbled, award 0 points. 3. Drug resistance evolves quickly in HIV because HIV has the highest mutation rate ever recorded. A mutation is a random change, so its impact on fitness is random. What is the downside (fitness cost) of having a high mutation rate? Question 3 Sample answer Because organisms and viruses are adapted to their environment, most random changes reduce fitness. Most mutant HIV do not function well. For full credit (2 points), answer must clearly state the logic behind the claim that most mutations
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course BIOL 180 taught by Professor Freeman during the Fall '07 term at University of Washington.

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PracticeExamWks1-3 - Bio180 First Practice Exam 1. Design...

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