5 - 3 - 42. Major Depression. Pathophysiology, Animal Models, (Biomarkers) (9-46)

5 - 3 - 42. Major Depression. Pathophysiology, Animal Models, (Biomarkers) (9-46)

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Hello, in this mini-lecture we're going to continue our discussion of major depression. We're going to talk about pathophysiology, what actually causes major depression. We're going to talk about animal models, particularly in mice, and we're not going to talk about bio-markers, because there really is no one or two established bio-markers that tell us when a person or an animal is suffering from major depression. Let's first of all review the brain areas that regulate mood. Clearly, there are problems with these brain areas in the mood disorders. So, the neural circuitry of mood consists of a number of areas in the ventral brain, and also some areas in the forebrain, most probably the frontal cortex. the frontal cortex consists of both the prefrontal and the cingulate cortex, and as you'll remember, deep brain stimulation in the anterior cingulate cortex is an emerging therapy for treatment-resistant depression. The frontal cortex, covering the cognitive function, and the attention, and these clearly are functions that, are disregulated in major depression. The ventral region of the hippocampus also governs cognitive function in memory, also thought to be disrupted in major depression. The nucleus accumbens, or the ventral striatum, governs reward and via projections, do it from other areas, probably also aversion. The amygdala has been studied very aggressively over the past decade or so, and mediates responses to emotional stimuli, including fear. The hypothalamus regulates a number of important functions in the body, sleep, appetite, energy, sex, And it participates also in the so called hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis. And this axis involves both the brain and the periphery,
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