chapter 6 - 2/20/2008 Chapter 6 "Chromosome...

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2/20/2008 1 Chapter 6 ”Chromosome Mutations” Variation in chromosome number Anueploidy and Euploidy Polyploidy and its origins Variations in chromosome structure Genetic information of diploid organisms is delicately balanced in both content and location within the genome. Chromosome mutation, a change in chromosome number or in the arrangement of a chromosome region within the genome, often results in phenotypic variation of disruption of development of an organism. Because the chromosome is the unit of transmission in meiosis, such variations can be passed to offspring in a predictable manner, resulting in many unique genetic outcomes. Quotes of the Chapter Imagination is more important than information! It is a miracle that curiosity survives formal education! Albert Einstein When Albert was five, his father showed him a pocket compass. Albert realized that something in empty space was moving the needle and later stated that this experience made "a deep and lasting impression
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2/20/2008 2 Terms related to chromosome complement of an organism n = number of sets of chromosomes 2n = two complete sets of chromosomes (diploid organism) 2n + 1 = 2 complete sets of chromosomes plus one extra chromosome 2n 1 = 2 sets of chromosomes where one set is missing one Two complete sets of human chromosomes 2 n = 46 Variation in Chromosomes 1. Variation in Chromosome Number A. Aneuploidy = Unbalanced chromosome number 2n + 1 or 2n - 1 B. Euploidy = balanced chromosome numbers 2. Variation in Chromosome Structure Structural variations within chromosomes Duplications, deletions, inversions, translocations
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3 6.2 Variation in Chromosome Number A. Aneuploidy Unbalanced chromosome number from a complete set. One extra or one missing. 2n + 1 or 2n - 1 B. Euploidy When two or more complete sets of the haploid complement of chromosomes are present Polyploidy A. Aneuploidy Variation in single chromosome complement. Trisomy-
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2008 for the course SORC 330 taught by Professor Brick during the Spring '08 term at Colorado State.

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chapter 6 - 2/20/2008 Chapter 6 "Chromosome...

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