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1 VARIABLES, RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND DATA CODING Variables, Research Questions and Data Coding Chadd C. Cooper, Jr. Liberty University BUSI-820 5/17/2021 Author Note Chadd C. Cooper, Jr. I have no known conflict of interest to disclose. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Chadd C. Cooper Email: [email protected]
2 VARIABLES, RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND DATA CODING Variables, Research Questions and Data Coding D1.1 Variables The definition of a variable is a “characteristic of the participants or situation in a given study that has different values” (Morgan et al., 2013, p. 294). Variables can be considered independent or dependent. The independent form of a variable can be further described as an active variable or attribute variable. Active variables are also referred to as “manipulated independent variables”, while attribute variables are considered “measured independent variables” (Morgan et al., 2013, p. 314). The inevitable goal of research is to identify the casual relationship between two variables. Only the active independent variables can provide the data that infers whether the independent variable causes the change or difference in a dependent variable (2013). It is not always accurate in the inference of cause, however. When there are large differences with the people with different values of an attribute independent variable, causation cannot be concluded with the attribute independent variable. There is a distinction between the main effect and effect size that can lead to too much variation. D1.2 Research Questions I Difference research questions is a comparison of two or more different groups with the individuals holding one of the values of the independent variables (Tully, 2014). The associational research questions pertain to two or more associations of the variables. The descriptive research questions are a delineation of the data for the sample studied. There are

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