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#Chem 161-2007 recitation 6th week

#Chem 161-2007 recitation 6th week - CHEMISTRY 161-2007 6TH...

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CHEMISTRY 161-2007 6 TH WEEK RECITATION ANNOUNCEMENTS E-MAIL ATTENDANCE EXAMS Recitation quiz II Wed, Oct. 17 th , Chapter 5.5 – 6.4 Thu, Oct. 18 th , Chapter 5.6 – 6.7 Location of hourly exams II and III Sections 23, 25, 29 (and 17)- Hck 101 Chem 161-2007 recitation 6 th week 1
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PLAN FOR TODAY : CHAPTER 5: • PRESSURE GAS LAWS • REACTION STOICHIOMETRY • PARTIAL PRESSURE (MIXTURES OF GASES) • KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY EFFUSION & DIFFUSION REAL GASES CHAPTER 6: • HEAT AND WORK Chem 161-2007 recitation 6 th week 2
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ET note: Not everything goes through moles, e.g., volume to grams, grams to volume, atoms to molecules, molecules to atoms. Hill & Petrucci et al., 4 th edition CHEM 161-2007 RECITATION 6 TH WEEK CHAPTER 5 - GASES Chem 161-2007 recitation 6 th week 3 A MOLE moles A moles B atoms molecules (or atoms if particle is an atom) M B or V B g B or MW B V B M A or V A V A g A or MW A MOLES ARE AT THE CENTER (FOR CONVERSIONS, WORK THROUGH MOLES) MW (D = g/V) (moles A = g A /MW A ) (moles = g /MW ) mol A = M A L A moles A = P A V A /RT A for gases (molecules x atoms/molecule = atoms) (moles A = g A /MW A ) mol B = M B L B moles B = P B V B /RT B for gases (moles B = g B /MW B ) (D = g/V) (moles x Avog. No. = molecules (or atoms)) %A % B Empirical formula Molecular formula (MW/EW) x Emp form = molec form moles = g/MW PV = nRT moles = M x V P 1 V 1 /n 1 T 1 =P 2 V 2 /n 2 T 2 g/MW = M x V D = g/L
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CHAPTER 5 - GASES IMPORTANT GAS LAW FORMULAS Kinetic Molecular Theory: (1) Molecules are in constant motion; (2) Molecules exert no forces on each other except when they collide with each other; (3) Molecules are dimensionless points. This means that the volume of the molecules is negligible compared to the volume of the container; (4) All collisions are elastic (no loss of kinetic energy); (5) Kinetic energy is proportional to temperature. According to this model, pressure is caused by the accumulation of all the molecules collisions with the walls of the container. Boyle’s Law: P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 (n and T are constant) Charles’s Law: V 1 /T 1 = V 2 /T 2 (n and P are constant) Avogadro’s Law: V 1 /n 1 = V 2 /n 2 (P and T are constant) Amonton’s Law: P 1 /T 1 = P 2 /T 2 (n and V are constant) Pressure conversion units: 1 mm = 1 Torr 1 atm = 760 mm = 14.696 lb/in 2 Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT PV = (g/MW)RT P = (g/VMWRT D = g/L = g/V P = (D/MW)RT Combination Gas Law : P 1 V 1 /n 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 /n 2 T 2 Also, (P 1 V 1 MW 1 )/(g 1 T 1 ) = (P 2 V 2 MW 2 )/(g 2 T 2 ) Also, (P 1 MW 1 )/(D 1 T 1 ) = (P 2 MW 2 )/(D 2 T 2 ) If any variables are constant, a new equation is derived. e.g., at constant P and T P 1 V 1 /n 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 /n 2 T 2 V 1 /n 1 = V 2 /n 2 , which is Avogadro’s law e.g., at constant moles and temperature P 1 V 1 /n 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 /n 2 T 2 P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 , which is Boyle’s law Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures : At constant T & P, P 1 /P total = n 1 /n total or P 1 /n 1 = P 2 /n 2 (KE) avg = (3/2)RT Use SI units: KE = J; R = 8.314J/(Kmol); T = K Root mean square velocity = µ RMS = √(3RT/MW) Use SI units: R = 8.314J/(Kmol); MW = kg/mol Effusion rate: Rate 1 /Rate 2 = √(MW 2 /MW 1 ) Effusion time: Time 1 /Time 2 = √(MW 1 /MW 2 ) Chem 161-2007 recitation 6 th week 4
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Hill & Petrucci et al., 4 th edition CHEM 161-2007 RECITATION 6 TH WEEK CHAPTER 5 - GASES Pressure ET: Height of earth’s atmosphere = 6000 miles.
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