07. Forming Processes

07. Forming Processes - Forming Processes Topics today 1....

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1 Forming Processes Topics today 1. Fundamentals 2. Bulk Forming Processes i. Rolling ii. Forging iii. Extrusion iv. Drawing (wire, rod, and tube) 3. Sheet Metal Forming Processes i. Sheering ii. Bending iii. Drawing & Stretching
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2 States of Stress Forming Operations
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3 Forming Operations Forming Operations
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4 Independent-Dependent Relationships Figure 15-1 Schematic representation of a metalforming system showing independent variables, dependent variables, and the various means of linking the two. Hot Working Plastic deformation of metals at a temperature above the recrystallization temperature Temperature varies greatly with material Recrystallization removes the effects of strain hardening Hot working may produce undesirable reactions from the metal and its surroundings
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5 Cold Working Advantages as compared to hot working – No heating required Better surface finish Disadvantages – Higher forces are required to initiate and complete the deformation – Superior dimensional control – Better reproducibility – Strength, fatigue, and wear are improved – Directional properties can be imparted – Contamination is minimized – Heavier and more powerful equipment and stronger tooling are required – Less ductility is available – Metal surfaces must be clean and scale-free – Intermediate anneals may be required – Imparted directional properties can be detrimental – Undesirable residual stresses may be produced Warm Working Deformations produced at temperatures intermediate to cold and hot working Advantages – Reduced loads on the tooling and equipment – Increased material ductility – Possible reduction in the number of anneals – Less scaling and decarburization – Better dimensional precision and smoother surfaces than hot working – Used for processes such as forging and extrusion
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6 Topics today 1. Fundamentals 2. Bulk Forming Processes i. Rolling ii. Forging iii. Extrusion iv. Drawing (wire, rod, and tube) 3. Sheet Metal Forming Processes i. Sheering ii. Bending 2.i. Rolling
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7 Flowchart of Rolling Operations 2.ii. Forging Processes that induce plastic deformation through localized compressive forces applied through dies Oldest known metalworking process Parts can range in size Methods –D r a
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8 Open-die Hammer Forging Impression-Die Hammer Forging
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9 2.iii. Extrusion Advantages of Extrusion Many shapes can be produced that are not possible with rolling No draft is required Amount of reduction in a single step is only limited by the equipment, not the material or the design Dies are relatively inexpensive Small quantities of a desired shape can be produced economically
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10 2.iv. Drawing (Wire, Rod, and Tube) Reduce the cross section of a material by pulling it through a die Similar to extrusion, but the force is tensile Figure 16-34 Schematic drawing of the rod-or bar-
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07. Forming Processes - Forming Processes Topics today 1....

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