Intro to American Indian Studies Notes - Indian history...

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Unformatted text preview: Indian history 9/17 • Lori piestewa o Iraq women who died but we don’t hear about it § Because she was in the same convoy as Jessica lynch who got kidnapped and Jessica was the only one who was paid attention too media wise • Pequot are in charge of making wampum (like a national bank) o Narraganset-­‐ guys set fire to camp and burned innocent people, Narraganset got upset and said you cant just do that o Wampum-­‐ woven into belts that document history o Quahog o English and Pequot go to war because English start making wampum and lowering the price of it o Lacrosse was played as means of o Counting coup-­‐ touching your enemy and getting away with it • She’s trying to make us understand that words are more powerful than we imagine and that if we keep using them we begin to normalize them in society • Going Native o More than just the movie dancing with wolves o “Going native significance” § Going native is appropriating the identity, images, cultures or practices of indigenous peoples and inscribing the various aspects with meaning related to the appropriator regardless of historical or cultural accuracy • People wearing things that they have not earned to wear • Environmental movement • Professional sports teams • Smoking tobacco § Describes concept that has helped, or serves to help in, the project of building a National Identity, negotiate the crises modernity has presented us with, and rewrites a violent colonial past. • It means that there are 3 key components of a going native narrative/going native o Whose purposes does it serve? § Building a national identity • Is about what makes us different from Europe? o Indians (we have Indians and Europe does not) § Negotiating modernity • Every culture has a modern form o But transitioning into the modern can be daunting and produces social anxiety • Assimilation does not mean modernity which does not mean western o So, since 1 and 2 are true, any claim that simply because something is non-­‐ western that it is also non-­‐ modern is false and problematic § Rewriting a violent colonial past • Serves to assuage and alleviate colonial guilt o Example of going native: Avatar movie • • • Going native o 3 things from going native § Alleviates colonial guilt § Re-­‐units history § Helps create national identity § Negotiate anxiety re: modernity o Bureau of indian affairs moves from being __ to ___ o Anthropology – was developing around this time American indian policy in a nut shell o While generally accepted as accurate, many policies began and were tried and tested in earlier forms before becoming official “indian policy” o Why is it important to have a flag § Identifies your culture and nation o Hid the fact that there were numerous amounts of people in America before coming § Disease killed people we didn’t (excuses) o Indians not federally recognized § You would have to go to court in order to be recognized as indian Defining self by practicing othering o Racialization and othering are distinct processes that are undergone continuously, evolving and changing to serve the needs of those in charge of the definitions o Each image is reliant on the existence of the other o They exist in opposition to each other § Good/bad § White/black § Maternal/paternal • § Feminine/masculine § Civilized/savage o Pseudo science o Structure of the U.S. § The structures that get built in the U.S. have race structures built behind them o One drop rule § If you have one drop of African blood that can be proven, you are property § Only applies to ppl of African ancestry • Because you can own them § Blood Logic o Property § One drop § Blood Quantum • ¼ = bloodless genocide • designed to make native people disappear • only people who are indian have to be ¼ indian in order to be indian o the historical development of indian policy and the federal-­‐tribal relationship § 1770s-­‐1820s policy: Treaties • international sovereign to international sovereign § Tribal Responses: • Diplomacy and some armed resistance • “one does not sell the land people walk on” crazy horse, sept 23, 1875 o Indian Summer § You can use the land until strawberry season Doctrine of Discovery in U.S. Law o Johnson V M’intosh 1823 § This was a contradiction. • Its essentially saying If you want land and its occupied, you kill the people to get the land § “These grants have been understood by all” • doesn’t include native people, all law abiding nations § claims native people only have rights of • use and occupancy of the land • infringes of sovereignty • they were admitted to rightful occupants of the soil o language of Indian savagery § imbedded into the court system § not as much about Intent, but it is more about the Impact • an argument about good intention but what we need to see is the impact that is causes • • • o words in the doctrine that have an impact § “Understood by all” not everyone understood § “Necessarily diminished” like they needed to get rid of indians indian act in Canada o was designed to eliminate native ppl without the use of blood quantum o Canada said that white women with indian father, child considered indian o Indian women with white father, the wife and children are no longer considered indian § Lost their status, lost recognition of being indian by the Canadian Gov. o They have a system of Status and Non Status The right to vote came with citizenship o Women were not the last to vote but natives who finally were recognized in 1924 Like a Loaded Weapon o Have a lot of myths that never occurred o What happened to native people was somehow justified o we don’t want to admit that we have absorbed stereotypes § media, bugs bunny indian episode, getting past on to kids Marshall trilogy o Johnson v. Mcintosh (1823) § An American indian man sold property to a non Cherokee person (white man), land was simultaneously sold by government • Important because its about who has the right to sell the land indian people live on • Sold by 2 entities § 5 (Civilized Tribes) • Cherokee • Creek • Choctaw • Seminole • Chickasaw o What these tribes did was that in order to make sure they are recognized, they are gonna create school buildings to teach their kids in. § Sequoyah • He developes the Cherokee Syllabary • They started becoming more literate than americans • They also stopped allowing women to the treaty councils. • Nancy Ward goes to treaty commission and says “where are your women” o Said that women were necessary to be involved in decisions o Women positions are valued in indian culture o Cherokee start getting undermined because the white people say that “can you believe they are listening to women” o Men stop listening to women because they couldn’t get anything done as long as the women were there Gold was found in Georgia o Mass extermination programs § We need the land and resources now J v M • Use and Occupancy • àRuling legislated that native people were the occupants of their land but were unable to sell lands without approval of U.S. Gov • àWrote the “doctrine of discovery” into U.S. law which still stands as precedent in Federal Indian Law o Cherokee Nation V. Georgia (1831) § àRuling stated indian people were citizens of “domestic dependent nations” • Either domestic, or are dependent nations relying on U.S. Gov. § àWhose relationship to the U.S. “resembles that of a ward to his guardian” • I am the parent you are the child so you have to listen to me § àEstablishes “trust relationship” between tribes and U.S. which requires the U.S. to provided certain benefits and services for indian tribe/people • All land and resources are held by U.S. gov. on behalf of indian people o Trust fund § o Indian reservations are extremely poor o Worcester V. Georgia (1832) § They are still dealing with the fact that they still want natives out of the state of geogia § àRuling establishes that states have no authority over persons and actions in “indian Country” state laws do not extend into indian country § àLegislates Indian tribes as under the protection of the federal government and that congress (not states) has “plenary power” over tribes. (i.e. state could not remove Indians from their lands) o Andrew Jackson § Ignored supreme court and sent military to remove Indians anyways • The response is that this is bad and we know it and that history will recognize it as a terrible thing 10/1 • Poems: o Sasquatch, more believed is real than God § Evidence, Folklore-­‐ myth § Intellectual imperialism is embedded in the word Folklore § Folklore • Minority view • Implies that it is not real, Implicit judgement embedded in the language choice • Simple § Hierarchy • Of the way that we think • Many have religion above science and some have science over religion • Talking about others, we tend to think of them as lesser people § Native people in national history museum • “extinct like dinosaurs” • ties us to a doomed existence, other living people saying they are extinct, native seen as extinct • making ppl disappear o blood quantum o slaughter § Native people are no longer “authentic” • Gotta collect their culture to exhibit it in museums • Salvage Ethnography – go out and collect as much as possible to save it to put in museums o People steeling from natives o Unburying graves and steeling • • • o “good intentions”-­‐ they don’t necessarily help people, supposedly trying to help § when words are out there they have an impact § racist remarks etc. § what really matters is the impact not the intentions o Defacing the sacred place § Cave pantings on the wall, we try and take them off and place in museums Where else does the Federal governments authority regarding American Indians come from o it comes fom the U.S. Constitution (Article 1, Section 8) o The founding fathers put something in the constitution § “Commerce Claus”-­‐ regulated interstate commerce • Regulates commerce with foreign nations and Indian tribes • More on this? Marshall Trilogy o John V. Mcintosh (1823)-­‐ natives people cannot sell their land o Cherokee nation v. Georgia-­‐ Georgia tried to kick natives out but they said they couldn’t do that o Worcester v Georgia (1832)-­‐ pres uses military to uphold his view. Cant kick out Cherokee so put laws on what they can do on their land o Andrew Jackson § Calls them uncivilized yet the natives have a higher literacy rate then U.S. Removal: A Trail of Tears o Go in winter-­‐ easier to cross rivers when they are frozen o Didn’t care if they died o Was supposed to be fed by military but the cans they brought were rotten o Not just Cherokee but the 5 big tribes § Have many other tribes on the trail as well o John Gasts (1872) painting: Bright Lamps Bold Adventure § Trail of tears § Darker to the west, angle in the middle • Angle – lady manifest destiny o Book with her (education, the bible) o Bringing light with her o Native people look scared of her o She the “star of empire” shining the light on where to go in the future § Claim its “natural” to make us feel better but its manmade Darkness of savagery The light of civilization Running from the light, seemingly, towards the sunset of our very existence § Wiring the continent with a telegraph wire § Clothing came after “contact” § Behold the “bright star of Empire” affixed to her forhead § Farming Lewis Henry Morgan o Hat das considered a “friend to the indian” – we are trying to understand how humans o Try to apply “Darwinism” to the world o Charles Darwin “Survival of the fittest” -­‐ evolution § Never says survival of the fittest “said survival of the fit, if to fit for environment then you die” § They are trying to understand Darwinism as social science o Social Darwinism § Cultural § It is not science! § The corruption of scientific theories to support soci ideology § Influenced anthropologists o Said that Human societies progressed through 3 stages: § Savagery-­‐ the lowest stage, subsistence on wild plants, no soil tilling or animal domestication § Barbarism-­‐ starting to use agriculture § Civilized-­‐ begins with the art of writing, which binds together the past and the future o Indians have a long history of domesticated dogs that worked with Indians carrying stuff etc. o Lewis’ way of thinking was not just him § Morgan was determined to make sure that America had literature of its own. In so doing, his clear aim was to “define national identity”—to define what is America § Two examples • James fenimoore cooper and Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) § Tried to define national identity – to define what is American o Historical development of indian policy and the federal-­‐tribal relationship § 1830s-­‐1860s Policy: Removal • domestic dependent nations • (Chief justice Marshall’s ruling in Cherokee Nation V. Georgia case of 1831) § Tribal Responses: • armed resistance; negotiation under duress § § § • • actively speaking out against negotiations • 1850s-­‐1890s Policy: Reservation o wards in need of protection, guardianship • Tribal Responses: o Waning resistance; accommodation • The Chief red cloud (get this from notes, needed) • 1870s – 1930s Policy: Assimilation o Wards in Need of Protection, Guardianship • Tribal Responses: Accommodation; Foot-­‐dragging; Religious movements o Chief red cloud goes to president (called great white father) and the pres. Said that you were deceived 10/3 in note book 10/8 Poems (from readings) • boarding schools o Verbal and physical abuse o “dumb car” § quiet, warm car (taking you back to school) o weren’t about keeping kids warm nor healthy § got raggedy old cloths (army cloths) o lacerations § scaring the land § railroad being build § killing buffalos § but it “brings you back home” o land is thought about as something we can control o green (shameful color) § kids wearing green dresses § scrub floors § Saturdays à (gisi bi gisa ginde ghizhagad) “floor scrubbing day” • Boarding schools made them scrub till they bled In class Notes: • Half breeds are thought of as being more competent because they have white blood • Kagama and the Major crimes act • 1871 end of treaty making • 1885 major crimes act • 1887 general allotment (dawes) act “checker-­‐boarding” o turning natives into land owners § introduced the idea that men where authority of house holds § broke up communities (made people build fences on their land) separated communities and once natives went to live together, government took the land they previously had before they came together o “kill the Indian and save the man”-­‐ about boarding schools o Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 believed natives where lazy and had to farm Dawes act took most land away from Indians (Dawes act very important probably on test) Gold found in Nebraska (kicks everyone out because of gold), Colorado (goal was to get every native out of Colorado), California o Makes natives move west Columbian exposition o 1492-­‐ Columbus’ discovery o Fredrick Jackson turner’s “Frontier Thesis” § Says the frontier is over • “This is America now” • People making assertions and then passing policies to make sure it happens § “How the west was wonStolen” Points to remember about race: o We have all been “raced” – we have all been raised based on conforming to expectations o Race is not science, race is a social construct o Racism is very real o It is not enough to be aware of stereotypes o We can create an anti-­‐racist world – by being aware of race and perceptions of people Whiteness: (gonna be on test) o George Lipsitz has defined whiteness as: “the unmarked category against which difference is constructed.” Why is this definition important? § We are so used to othering • People not considered white until recently o People have an investment in whiteness § “Possessive investment in whiteness” • Suddenly have access to things now they previously did not (they start to protect their access) § Housing, denied loans of same cost trying to live in white communities as in minority communities (accepted in minority community and not in white) Harper’s Weekly What is the “whitemans burden” o Whitemans responsibility to uplift other people around the world (racial uplift) § • • • • • • • • o Its ok for us to theif from them because we are bringing civilization toward people o Justified their terrible behavior on their “burden” • Indians racialized as black or indian o Sometimes raised as being good for labor and others as Indians • Asian exclusion act o Asian and chinese women exluded from coming to America because they didn’t want Asians to be born in America o Didn’t let chinese or Asians work o “Addicted to opium” • Newspaper harpers weekly shows confused Indians, white-­‐man’s burden, uncle Sam, o Without white oversight, other races cant function as members of society 10/10 • De jure = by law (racism) • De facto = by fact (the fact of the matter is we do have racism) • Getting up to speed on how to talk about racism o Pointers on creating an anti-­‐racist world § 1st White privilege exists • white people don’t have to worry about walking into a class and seen as not supposed to be there (colored people are seen as not supposed to be there) • where does it come from? o Quotas o Subject position § How u are defined by society § Intersectional § 2nd Sanctuary is not segregations • what does this mean? o Sanctuaries are the one place where you are not going to be seen as a theft, or other stereotypes o Governments placed Indians in “their own” sanctuaries o Sanctuaries are vital to survival • Examples o Multi-­‐cultural groups on campus • Flipping the actors does not lend clarity to an issue, nor does it mean that you have created equivalent analogies o It’s a way of dismissing claims that racial construct still exists o History exists and still affects everyone of us o Seeking the empowerments of people of color is not the same as disenfranchising white people o Racism is more than “individual acts of meanness” § You can still be a nice person but still have to stop and frisk § We all have the potential to do or say things that exert white privilege § The whole system is set up so that certain people (get more on this, market housing) 10/15 • EXAM REVIEW AND POEMS o Criminals as Creators of Capital § Cops have quotas to fill, more incentive to get more people § Native epistemology on the exam § Prison industrial complex is for profit (prisons run by 4 big profit organizations) § Criminals get more health care etc. in jail than the poor not in jail § If you go to jail you come out a felon and cant vote, also hard to get jobs o Intergenerational trauma § Theory that unresolved trauma from one generation gets passed on to other generation o Its held down there § Sulfer dioxide, hydrogen sulfide (water pipes, diamonds) § Don’t see sacrifices that people make so that we can have what we have § People in mines mining for diamonds working hard, dangerous § Destroy lands through fracking § What lengths will we go to to get the resources we want § CEO of Nesly, says water isn’t a human right (we are made of water though), says water shouldn’t be free o How are the 2 poems related § Both profiting from injustices § Same politics and ideologies that celebrates mass murders (Columbus) • Raped, cut off hands and noses to get what he wanted • Lecture o Racism is more than “individual acts of meanness” § Racism is not just words but a long standing tradition of punishing people for being who they are due to race and privileging those who are not minorities § People have the tendency to believe that you are only racist if you believe you are racist towards other races Believe only that meanness is racist, but when people do “nice” things they are doing it because they feel guilty/bad for the minority § Legacies (grandparents and parents going to same college and kid gets in no questions asked, most people back in the days where whites who got degrees so can be claimed racist) Hating white privilege is not the same as hating white people § Have to recognized unearned privileges • People disadvantaged so some people can be pr...
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