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Chapter Six: Social Control and DevianceSocialDeviance: Any transgression of socially established norms (breaking the rules)- Informal Deviance: Any minor acts of deviance (ex: farting in church)- Crime(Formal Deviance): The violation of laws enacted by society- The definitions of what is deviant varies across contexts, because social norms are always changing- Deviance is a powerful label, capable of reproducing the entrenched social inequalities that punishment is often supposed to correctFunctionalist Approaches to Deviance and Social Control (Emilé Durkheim)- Functionalist Approach: Explains the existence of social phenomena by the functions they perform (all of societies various parts are defined by their functions and are arranged as they are due to the needs of the society)- SocialCohesion: Social bonds, or how well people relate to each other and get along on a day-to-day basis- Durkheim said there are two basic ways society can hold together:- Mechanical(or Segmental) Solidarity: Social cohesion based on sameness (Pre-Modern)- Punishment (collective vengeance) as a response to deviance- OrganicSolidarity: Social cohesion based on difference and interdependence of the parts (Modern)- Rehabilitation (attempt to restore the status quo) as a response to deviance- Distinguishing between these two types of social solidarity leads us to our first insight into social deviance- Deviance offends the collective conscience - Without this collective conscience, there would be no sense of moral unity and a societywould dissolve into chaos- Society has to mend the gash that a deviant made through punishment or rehabilitation- This is determined by the type of solidarity that holds that particular society togetherSocialControl: Those mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals- The two categories of Social Controls:1. Formal Social Sanctions: Mechanisms of social control by which rules or laws prohibit deviantcriminal behavior2. Informal