BioExam1-Chapters1,2,3.wps

BioExam1-Chapters1,2,3.wps - What is life 1 Exhibits order...

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What is life? 1. Exhibits order 2. Reproduces 3. Capacity to grow and develop 4. Captures and uses energy 5. Tendency to evolve 6. Homeostasis - keeps internal environment stable 7. Senses and responds to environment Hierarchy of Life Atoms - Everything is made up of chemicals at its most basic level. Biological Molecules - The arrangement of atoms Cells - Every living thing is made of cells Tissues - arrangement of cells Organs - arrangement of tissues, working together Organisms - group of organs -must have at least one cell Population - Groups of organisms - We define the boundaries Community - Groups of different populations Ecosystem - includes living and nonliving things i.e. Temperature, rainfall, geological stability, pH. Life emerges at the cellular level. What is the relationship between structure and function in biology? Structure (how an organism is built) is related to function (how an organism works). Anatomy = structure Physiology = function Chapter 2 - Life’s Chemical Basis There are 25 elements that are essential for life. Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen are known as the Big 4. - O- 8 C- 6 H- 1 N- 7 Trace Elements are 14 elements that are essential to life but are less abundant. They make up less than 0.01% of body weight. Atoms - fundamental substances that have mass, take up space and cannot be broken apart by everyday means. They are the smallest unit of an element that still retains the element’s properties. - made up of three kinds of subatomic particles - Protons - positive, found in nucleus - Neutrons - neutral, found in nucleus - Electrons - negative, found orbiting the nucleus Elements - collections of atoms
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Each element has a unique atomic number . This number refers to the number of protons in the nucleus. Each element also has a mass number , the total number protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Isotope - one, two or more forms of an electron that differ in the number of neutrons in their nuclei. Atomic Bonding Chemical Bonding - electron swapping. First shell- 2 electrons Second, Third, etc. - 8 electrons Molecule - two or more atoms of the same or different elements joined in a chemical bond. Compound - molecules that consist of two or more different elements in proportions that never vary. Ion - Atom in which the number of electrons differs from the number of protons; negatively or positively charged.
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