Spanish 202 Final Study Guide

Spanish 202 Final Study Guide - Ser 1. Expresses inherent...

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ser (to be) soy eres es somos sois son Ser 1. Expresses inherent characteristics Estar 1. Expresses location 2. Expresses a condition, such as health, mental state or a change from the perceived norm. estar (to be) estoy estás está estamos estáis están Comparisons -use menos/mas and que for less/more comparisons - use tan/tano and como for equality if a verb is being used for comparison, put "mas/menos que" and "tan/tanto como" together after that verb. Summary of passive verbs (those that work like gustar ): 1Always use an IOP (ind obj pronoun: me, te, le/les, nos ) to identify who/what is pleased/disgusted/interested/fascinated – this is the object of the verb 2Sometimes uses phrase with prep. a to clarify/emphasize the above, such as: a mi hermano, a ella, a nosotros, a ti, a mí, a tus padres – can be redundant/repetitive 3Verb is almost always in 3 rd singular or 3 rd plural, according to what is pleasing/interesting/appetizing/bothering/worrying, et cetera (the subject of the sentence) – when this is an activity, use the infinitive and treat it as singular. Thus: A Laura le encanta la familia de Manuel, pero le dan asco los aguacates . A mis padres les importa hablar conmigo a menudo. A mi hija le caen fenomenal todos sus abuelos. A Sara le fastidian los jalapenos y los habañeros. When this kind of verb is followed by que that triggers the subjunctive in the next verb, por ejemplo: A mis vecinos les gusta QUE …yo corte el césped (mow the lawn/cut grass) todos los fines de semana. A las personas que votan en una elección, les molesta muchísimo QUE… los
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políticos les mientan ( mentir = to lie). A tus padres les preocupa QUE… tú salgas con un miembro de una pandilla ( gang ). A mi hermano le disgusta la política de nuestro gobierno, y en particular le preocupa QUE haya una Guerra en el Medio Oriente (Middle East). PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE 1 st step: take YO present form of verb….example ----hablo 2 nd step: get rid of ending ……….habl… 3 rd step: add endings: AR VERBS: IR/ER VERBS: e a es as e a emos amos eis ais en an SIX IRREGULARS TO MEMORIZE: Dar: de, des, de, demos, deis, den Ir: vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayan, vayais, vayan Saber: sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepais, sepan Haber: haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayais, hayan Estar: este, estes, este, estemos, esteis, esten Ser: sea, seas, sea, seamos, seais, sean SUBJUNTIVE RULES: 1cannot be used alone because it doesn’t make sense….it ALMOST ALWAYS is two subjects linked by QUE example: YO (first subject) quiero QUE (link) Maria (2 nd sub.) venga (SUBJUNTIVE form) Usually the subjunctive is used with the following types of conversations/sentences: 2it’s used as a persuasive tool…. .because the person persuading does not know if the thing is actually going to happen. (example verbs usually found with subjunctive:
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Spanish 202 Final Study Guide - Ser 1. Expresses inherent...

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