Volcanoes - VOLCANO February 14, 2008 Pressure Pressure...

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VOLCANO February 14, 2008
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Temperature Pressure Pressure drops
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Phase Diagram
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MAGMA •M o s t m a g m a originates in upper mantle (asthenosphere) – High temperatures, relatively low pressure • Plate tectonics settings – Divergent plate boundaries – Subduction zones – “hot spots” or mantle plumes
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MAGMA • Magma composition controlled by: –Source material –Extent of melting • Magma composition influences behavior –Determines type of eruption • Major compositional variables –Silica –Iron –Magnesium
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Plate Distance from the plate VISCOSITY Water molecule τ
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Plate Distance from the plate VISCOSITY Velocity Velocity Gradient u Δ y = Δ u / Δ y τ =μ( Δ u / Δ y ) μ is referred to as (dynamic) viscosity. Δ u
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VISCOSITY Iron Ball Plastic Ball
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Plate Distance from the plate VISCOSITY Velocity Velocity
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Viscosity is also a function of density ν =μ/ ρ ρ is density; μ is referred to as (dynamic) viscosity; ν is referred to as kinematic viscosity.
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VISCOSITY Fluid with higher viscosity tends to flow slowly (other conditions being equal). (compare honey and water. Viscosity of honey is much greater than water).
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MAGMA More iron and magnesium More silicate Higher viscosity Mafic magma Felsic (silicic) magma The flow is slower
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MAGMA: COOLING Crystalline Plutonic (cools slower) Volcanic (cools faster)
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MAGMA •M a f i c m a g m a s – Divergent plate boundaries – Basalt formed on ocean floor (spreading ridges) –Low v
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MAGMA •F e l s i c m a g m a s – Convergent plate boundaries – Granite formed above subduction zones – High viscosity –Exp los
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This note was uploaded on 04/11/2008 for the course GEO SCI 106 taught by Professor Xu during the Spring '08 term at Wisconsin Milwaukee.

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Volcanoes - VOLCANO February 14, 2008 Pressure Pressure...

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