Minerals+Rocks - Minerals and Rocks Geo 106 January 29,...

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Minerals and Rocks Geo 106 January 29, 2008
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Minerals Asbestos is a mineral which has appeared frequently in headlines. Exposure to asbestos were shown to be causing Mesothelioma. Basic building units of minerals are atoms. Picture of white asbestos.
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ATOMS Smallest particle that preserves the characteristics of an element.
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ATOMS • Atomic Number = number of protons (unique for each element). • Atomic Mass Number = number of protons + number of neutrons (mass of electrons is negligible). • Isotope: equal number of protons, different number of neutrons, usually labeled by the total number of protons and neutrons.
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ATOMS Oxygen atom has 8 protons, 8 neutrons and 8 electrons. • Atomic Number = 8 • Atomic Mass Number = 16 One atom has 7 protons, 7 neutrons and 7 electrons; another atom has 7 protons, 8 neutrons and 7 electrons, are they isotopes? Answer: Yes. Because they have equal number of protons and different number of neutrons
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ATOMS Atomic mass number is usually used to distinguish different isotopes. Oxygen atoms with 8 protons and 8 neutrons, atomic mass number is 16, it is usually represented by 16 O or O-16. Oxygen atoms with 8 protons and 9 neutrons, atomic mass number is 17, it is usually represented by 17 O or O-17.
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Periodic Table • Orbits of electrons are well organized; • Elements with similar electronic structures have similar chemical behavior (grouped by their electronic structures).
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ATOMS Most abundant elements in the Earth’s crust: Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminum, Iron, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium, etc.
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ATOMS Ions: When atoms (or a group of atoms) gain or lose electrons
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ATOMS Cation: ions that carry positive charges; Anion: ions that carry negative charges. Ionic bonding: attractive force between two oppositely charged ions. Cation Anion
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Ionic bonding: table salt
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Ionic Bonding In natural environment, charges of ions are always balanced.
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When atoms share electrons. Covalent bond is usually very strong.
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Minerals+Rocks - Minerals and Rocks Geo 106 January 29,...

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