Facial Feedback - Outline Facial Feedback Theory History of...

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1 1 Facial Feedback Theory The Science of Human Emotion 2 Outline ± History of facial feedback theory ± Evidence ± Two main subtheories ± Modulation hypothesis ± Initiation hypothesis ± Discussion of function of emotion expression 3 Darwin “The free expression by outward signs of an emotion intensifies it. On the other hand, the repression, as far as is possible, of all outward signs softens our emotions. He who gives way to violent gestures will increase his rage; he who does not control the signs of fear will experience fear in a greater degree; and he who remains passive when overwhelmed with grief loses his best chance of recovering elasticity of mind.” Darwin, 1872/1965, p. 365 4 Facial Feedback Hypothesis ± Also referred to as proprioceptive feedback (as a more general, non-face specific term) ± Awareness of expression (which can lead to physiological change) creates or influences experience of emotion 5 Several Lines of Evidence for Facial Feedback ± Emotional “contagion” or mimicry ± Studies of actors ± Posing emotional facial expressions 6 Acting: Stanislawski ± Actors must put on face/behavior of emotion ± Actors feel the emotions they portray ± People’s emotional experiences are stored into memory, or as Stanislawski thought: “Emotional memory stores our past experiences; to relive them, actors must execute indispensable, logical physical actions in the given circumstances. There are as many nuances of emotions as there are physical actions”
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2 7 Posing Facial Expressions ± Positioning facial muscles without telling subject what emotion is associated ± 2 competing theories within this literature 8 Two versions of the facial feedback hypothesis ± Modulation hypothesis: ± amplification or de-amplification of feelings elicited by appropriate stimuli ± weak version of the facial feedback hypothesis ± less controversial ± Initiation hypothesis: ± elicitation of emotion by facial movement (due to hard-wired connections between components) ± strong version of the facial feedback hypothesis ± more controversial 9 Modulation hypothesis – Lanzetta (1976) ± amplify or suppress facial expression while receiving mild electric shocks ± suppression group rated the pain lower than amplification group ± skin conductance was higher for amplification group than for suppression group 10 Laird (1974) “the major objection to [James] has been the well known ‘fact’ that bodily changes during emotions are relatively undifferentiated and do not approach the level of complexity required to match the diversity of qualities of our experience of emotion…. . there is another set of bodily changes which are highly differentiated and which match closely variations in subjective experience. These are the changes in skeletal muscle activity in expressive behavior.” Laird, 1974, p. 476 11 Laird’s Theory of Emotion Emotion Eliciting Event Facial expression ANS Changes determines kind of emotion determines intensity of emotion 12 Laird’s early work (‘74) ±
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This note was uploaded on 04/11/2008 for the course PSY 611 taught by Professor Larson during the Spring '08 term at Wisconsin Milwaukee.

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Facial Feedback - Outline Facial Feedback Theory History of...

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