FacialExpressions- Lect.2

FacialExpressions- Lect.2 - Facial expressions outline...

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1 1 Facial Expression of Emotion The Science of Human Emotion 2 Facial expressions - outline ± Darwin ± Universality of facial expressions ± Scientific measurement of expression of emotion ± Masking of emotional expression ± Telling lies ± Display rules 3 Five Categories of Nonverbal Expression ± Emblems ± Signs that stand for words, etc. (gestures, insults) ± Illustrators ± Motions that accompany speech ± Regulators ± Nods, etc. to adjust flow of conversation ± Affect Displays ± Smiling, frowning, etc. ± Adaptors ± Signs of inner anxiety, distractors (nervous habits, etc.) 4 Charles Darwin ± The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals (1872) ± Major Contributions 1. Observation of behavior and facial expression 2. Methodological advances 3. Theory of evolution applied to understanding of emotion ± Emotions have evolved over eons (way before humans) ± Emotions are innate (biologically hard-wired) ± Emotions are functional/adaptive 5 Charles Darwin ± Evidence cited by Darwin that emotions are innate 1. Universal facial expressions 2. Babies have emotions 3. Deaf & blind children experience same emotions as other children. 4. Similarity of emotions between animals & humans 6 Darwin ± proposed that many expressions had their roots in reflexes that once had useful functions (e.g., gag) ± usefulness ensured that they were selected for, thus part of the genetic makeup of the species
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2 7 “…actions [that] are of direct or indirect service under certain states of the mind, in order to relieve or gratify certain sensations desires, etc; and whenever the same state of mind is induced, however feebly, there is a tendency through the force of habit for the same movements to be performed though they may not be of the least use.” Charles Darwin, The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals 8 Charles Darwin ± Given his interests in evolution and facial expression, why would Darwin say we have facial expressions? ± Perhaps for survival ± But not all expressions are necessary for survival, nor are they necessary for communication ± Principle of serviceable associated habits 9 Darwin… ± did NOT think that all human emotional expressions are still functional or useful (similar to appendix). ± never considered that the communicative function of emotion expressions was responsible for their propagation by natural selection 10 Universality of expressions ± Remember: Darwin sent questionnaires to missionaries, and obtained anecdotal evidence in favor of shared facial expressions across people from different continents ± obtained ratings from Europeans of facial expressions depicted in photographs 11 Ekman’s theory of “basic emotions”
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FacialExpressions- Lect.2 - Facial expressions outline...

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