8/26/2021 - Chapter 1Public policy– is what public officials within government, and by extensions the citizensthey represent, choose to do or not to do about public problems. We find it useful as well to distinguish between policy outputs and policy outcomes.oPolicy Outputs– the formal actions that governments take to pursue their goals.oPolicy Outcomes – the effects such actions actually have on society.After government enacts the laws, public policies also affect how the mandated services aimed at the public good, such as police protections, public education, maintenance of highways and bridges, or nation defense are provided. Federalism – constitutional arrangement whereby power is distributed between a central government and subdivisional governments called states in the United States. The national and the subdivisional governments exercise direct authority over individuals. oDual Federalism – views the Constitution as giving a limited list of powers to the national government, leaving the rest to sovereign states.