11_Nutrition - Animal Nutrition and Digestion Home Page...

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1 Animal Nutrition and Digestion © 2006: D. Julian Home Page Fuel, raw materials and essential nutrients As heterotrophs , animals cannot make organic molecules from raw materials that are entirely inorganic . Each animal’s diet must satisfy the following three requirements: 1. Fuel (for regeneration of ATP from ADP) 2. Organic raw materials for biosynthesis 3. Essential nutrients (e.g., vitamins and minerals) However, the specific needs of different animals vary, even between species that are closely related. © 2006: D. Julian Forms of energy storage After the immediate nutritional needs of an animal are met, the body can store at least some of the available excess energy: 1. Glycogen (glucose polymer, especially in liver and muscle) 2. Fat (lipids have a very high energy content for their weight). © 2006: D. Julian
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2 Homeostatic regulation of blood glucose glucose storage as glycogen Breakdown of glycogen © 2006: D. Julian Regulation of satiety and body fat Our hunter/gatherer ancestors did not have guaranteed supplies of high quality food throughout the year, so fat storage was an important adaptation during periods of low food availability. Today, many humans (and many of our pets) have nearly unrestricted access to high calorie food, sometimes resulting in storage of unhealthy amounts of excess fat. Mice with an error in the leptin gene (which helps regulate appetite and metabolism) become very obese and even get a form of diabetes. © 2006: D. Julian Four classes of essential nutrients 1. Essential amino acids . Animals use 20 amino acids to make proteins, but most can synthesize only about 10. Those that cannot be synthesized are “essential” in the diet. 2. Essential fatty acids
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2008 for the course BSC 2010 taught by Professor Bowes during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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11_Nutrition - Animal Nutrition and Digestion Home Page...

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