12_Circ_&_Gas_Exchg

12_Circ_&_Gas_Exchg - Circulation and Gas Exchange Home...

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1 Circulation and Gas Exchange © 2006: D. Julian Home Page Circulatory Systems © 2006: D. Julian Functions of circulatory systems Transport of nutrients from digestive tract to tissues, to and from storage organs Transport of metabolites (e.g., lactic acid from muscle to liver) Transport of excretory products from tissues to excretory organs Transport of gases respiratory organs to/from tissues Transport of hormones Transport of cells including cells of nonrespiratory function (e.g., leukocytes in verts, numerous cell types in inverts) Transport of heat Transmission of force e.g., locomotion (earthworms, spiders), erection of penis Coagulation Maintenance of milieu interieur From Schmidt-Neilsen, Animal Physiology, 1990 © 2006: D. Julian
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2 Sponges don’t need a circulatory system © 2006: D. Julian Internal transport in Aurelia Campbel and Reece, Fig. 42.2 The gastrovascular cavity of the cnidarian Aurelia provides nutrient transport throughout the body. Cilia lining the canals provide propulsion. © 2006: D. Julian The gastrovascular cavity of flatworms © 2006: D. Julian The gastrovascular system is more elaborate than in cnidaria, but there’s still no specialized circulatory system.
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3 Open vs. closed circulatory systems Blood and interstitial fluid make up the hemolymph. Blood is a special fluid contained in a closed loop. © 2006: D. Julian Campbel and Reece, Fig. 42.3 Components of closed circulatory systems Main propulsive organ usually a “heart”, to force blood around the body Arterial system “high pressure” to distribute blood and act as pressure reservoir Capillaries for transfer of material between blood and tissues Venous system “low pressure” to return blood to heart and act as volume reservoir © 2006: D. Julian Structure of blood vessels © 2006: D. Julian
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4 Circulatory schemes of vertebrates © 2006: D. Julian Campbel and Reece, Fig. 42.4 Fully divided, four chambered heart High pressure systemic (tissues) Low pressure pulmonary (lung) Lymphatic system (not pictured here) returns leaked plasma to blood Mammalian cardiovascular systems © 2006: D. Julian Campbel and Reece, Fig. 42.5 Anatomy of the mammalian heart Four chambers : two atria (auricles) two ventricles Multiple chambers : stepwise increase in pressure
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12_Circ_&_Gas_Exchg - Circulation and Gas Exchange Home...

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