5_Cellular_Metabolism

5_Cellular_Metabolism - Cellular Metabolism Home Page 2006:...

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1 Cellular Metabolism © 2006: D. Julian Home Page Metabolic pathways Chemical reactions are organized into metabolic pathways. A pathway begins with a specific molecule that is then altered in a series of steps (e.g., by cleavage, oxidation, reduction, phosphorylation), ultimately forming a certain product. Typically, each step is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. © 2006: D. Julian Catabolic vs. anabolic metabolism Catabolic pathways : Metabolic pathways that release energy (e.g., cellular respiration). Anabolic pathways : Metabolic pathways that consume energy (used to build complicated molecules from simpler ones). © 2006: D. Julian
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2 Thermodynamics © 2006: D. Julian Energy terms to remember from physics Energy : Capacity to cause change. Kinetic energy : Energy associated with relative motion of objects (including atoms and molecules). Heat ( thermal energy ) : Kinetic energy associated with random movement of atoms and molecules. Potential energy : Energy due to location or structure. Chemical energy : Potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction. © 2006: D. Julian First law of thermodynamics Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed . Also known as the principle of conservation of energy . © 2006: D. Julian
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3 Second law of thermodynamics Energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy (randomness or disorder) of the universe . In other words: if a process occurs spontaneously,
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5_Cellular_Metabolism - Cellular Metabolism Home Page 2006:...

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