History of US since 1865-2 - History of U.S Since 1865 Gilded Age1860-1890 Chicago as a model of change Population o 1860100,000 o 18901,000,000 o

History of US since 1865-2 - History of U.S Since 1865...

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Unformatted text preview: § § § § History of U.S. Since 1865 Gilded Age—1860-­‐1890 Chicago as a model of change Population: o 1860—100,000 o 1890—1,000,000 o 1870—1/2 of Americans still in agriculture o 1920—only about ¼ § Second Industrial Revolution o Steamboats and railroads o Electricity o Metals—steel o Meatpacking plants o Oil § § New industry Mass urbanization § Robber Barons? Or Wise Captains of Industry? o Thomas Edison + Menlo Park: Wonders of a new age § Phonograph § Incandescent light bulb § Electric chair § Stock ticker § Voting machines § Commercial generating plants § § 9/11 Andrew Carnegie and Carnegie Steel: Vertical integration § Resources: Coal, iron ore § Extraction: mining § Production: coking, steel mills § Transport: railroad, ships § Storage/distribution: warehouse network § Service: Managers, accountants, advertising § Believed in taking from the rich and giving to everyone § Built a library so the general people could learn Sumner o Everyone is were they are (rich man in penthouse, poor drunk in gutter. This is were they choose to be) § o “in a society life is tough, but some ppl are good at getting what they want. If you take from those who are successful, you take away the best from society and reinforce the worst ones.” § Horatio Alger myth § John D. Rockefeller o Demands a rebate o Built up an oil company o Refining oil cheaply and doing everything cheaply, in which his competitors have to match him but then go bankrupt and Rockefeller buys them out cheap and makes a shit ton of money off of it o He creates a trust, which gets broken up, and forms a holding company J.P. Morgan o Most powerful banker o Greats morgan bank o Financing mergers (taking smaller firms into one big company) o Creates G.E. o Morgan has influence over huge chunks over U.S. economy o Biggest accomplishment: Created U.S. steel o Worth billions which was unheard of back in those days o Steel becomes huge, factories railroads ect. Laissez-­‐faire o “hands off” “leave it be” o don’t regulate o Gov. is taking land for railroads § § § § Panic of 1873 o 1 million people unemployed o 50,000 companies gone o gov. will not intervene Local politics in the Gilded Age o A state of courts and parties § Political parties very powerful o New York City o New York County Courthouse o Boss Tweed+ Tammany Hall § Tweed • Manager of political works • Large man “300 pounds of grand larsony” • Gets money under the table • Gets arrested in 1871 and died in prison broke o George Washington Plunkitt § § § § § § The gritty city: o Working class culture-­‐ saloons/social drinking o Prostitution-­‐ city of new york had 600 brothals, 1000s of women as prostituted o Anthony Comstock-­‐ formed an organization that go undercover to brothel strip clubs and bring back reports on what they see § Prostitution still happens in NY § Starts targeting homosexuals § Comstockery § Anthony cracks down on birth control (said that it was lud) Uprising of 1877 o The lost world of labor solidarity § Industrial workforce increased to 6 million by 1900 § Tens of thousands of workers died annually in industrial accidents. Many more were left permanently injured o Cities of immigrants – Chicago in 1880: almost 90% of people were 1st or 2nd generation immigrants o Huge railroad strike due to 10% decrease in wages o Train yard fires, over 100 people die in this uprising of 1877 (shot by police officers ect.) o Failure of 150 railroads o Industrial workers start to go on strike as well Knights of Labor o Small secret organization then builds up to 1 million men – vague goals o Divided up the world as producers and parasites § Consider small business workers and more are considered producer classes § Producers: workers, small business owners, housewives, teachers § Parasites: upper class, “Capitalists class,” liquor merchants, lawyers o Terrence Powderly o American Federation of Labor: skilled workers § Samuel Gompers-­‐ created the AFL, they want a better deal, better wages, better work hours, better conditions ect. § Unskilled workers don’t have very much power and are easily replacable § Skilled workers actually have power, they can shut down the plant if they want so if they go on strike they have a likely chance of winning Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) o Demanded to exclude chinese workers o Chinese immigration halted o Rock Spring Massacre (1885)-­‐ 28 dead, white workers killed chinese The Haymarket Affair (1886)-­‐ Chicago, strike at the reaper plant and becomes huge, beatings, pickets, city of Chicago is essential under siege in 1886 o Call a public strike meeting, police come out and say its an illegal meeting § Tell them to go home but they refuse and get beaten § One guy in the crowd threw a dynamite and killed many, police start firing and dozens die o Many executed for dynamite bombing Homestead (1892) o Andrew Carnegie-­‐ leaves the country and puts in command henry clay frick Frick doesn’t negotiate with the union and knows its going to be a problem so builds a wall around steel factory and waits for strike to disappear o Pinkertons § Start escorting scab workers into town and the workers meet them at the river, workers are armed and open fire § Pinkertons finally get on shore and are disarmed and assaulted § Gov of pensylvania bring in national guard • Guards start taking the replacement workers o Emma Goldman + alexander Berkman § Propaganda of the deed – people are ready for revolution but need an example or a spark to bring about the revolution § Berkman shoots some guy and is thrown in prison and does not start a revolution Panic of 1893 o Coxey’s Army o Unemployed workers start marching toward Washington D.C. and demand relief of the panic of 1893 Polman boycott o Lead by Eugene Debs o Sleeping car named polman car by a man named polman o Company runs entire town o Workers appeal to Eugene debs and boycotts the polman car § Wont hall trains with polman cars on it which was basically every train § Railways shut down 250k workers lost jobs § Debs went to prison and comes out as a leading light of American radicalism and would be the social canadate for presidency § § § § National Politics o Culture of patronage o Assassination of Garfield by Charles Guiteau o Pendleton Act 9/23 is the US an empire? Did it start in 1898? Spanish American war documents 109-­‐111 • • • Grange movement (patrons of husbandry)-­‐ seeking better social living, Grange hall was a place where they could get together and socialize and also how to better their agriculture o Grange wants to regulate railroad, farmers need to get their vegetables to markets Crime of ’73-­‐ deflation is occurring, if u have a dollar its gonna be valued less later because values of other things are going up o farmers owe money and there is deflation, so American farmers are getting owned by this o farmers caught in cycle of over vegetating ect. Farmers’ alliance-­‐ price fixing, set up cooperatives-­‐ farmers can go and buy from a farmer cooperative store o They transform into a new political party known as the peoples party (the populist party) o Western populists § As farmers move west, they move into increasingly less rainfall, more dense population in the east • Miners start becoming populists • Populists start demanding silver to back up federal currency in hope for inflation Southern populist movement § Diff agricultural system (monecultural system-­‐ in the south it was cotton) § Politics of the south are divided by race § Tom Watson • Leading of southern populist movement • Encouraged whites and blacks to unite for a common cause mid-­‐western populist movement § mary lease • farmers wife/daughter • lectured farmers to “raise less corn and more hell” Omaha Platform § Free and unlimited silver coin § Wanted to organize inflation (greater supply of money) § Call for a secret ballet § Called for a graduated income tax § Wealthy americans taxed more § Immigration control § 8 hour days for working man § initiative and referendum system -­‐ the people can potition that can add a law that can be initiated by voters themselves (voted by people and becomes state law) § This is basically a blue print on how we start to reform 1896 they decide to not run a populist president vote but rather enforced a democratic (William Jennings Bryan) § promises to use the Omaha platform § famous “cross of gold speech” • stood in front of crowd and frenzied them up William McKinley § Mark Hanna • Goes around to business men around the country and saying how much is a McKinley win worth to your business and they start writing checks to him Wizard of Oz § Metaphor for late 19 century America? • Bomb wrote wiz of Oz o Scarecrow (looking for brain) – farmers (never stupid all along) o Tin man (industrial workers) – seeking a heart, industrial workers in a dehumanizing factory o Cowardly lion (William Jennings Bryan) – tough talk, cross of gold speech, but on the inside was soft o Dorthy (Mary Lease) – tough women who rallies the men around her o Yellow brick road (the gold Standard) o Dorthy slippers (dorthys silver slippers) § o o o o o o • • • • • • • • o Group of people together – Coxey’s Army o Emerald City – Washington DC o Wizard of Oz – Abreviation for Ounce (Oz) o Wicked witch of the East – eastern capitalists o Opium Poppies – Chinese Labor o Flying monkeys – plains Indians John Philips souse + US Marine Band o Stars and stripes forever song o In a very patriotic time o John Souse § Musical composer Decline of the Spanish Empire o Spanish American war 1898 § Columbus comes to America and claims for spain § Spain is the most powerful empire in the world § By 1820 most of America declared independence from spain o Criollos – people of European decent born in colonies § Mostly Spaniards, full Spanish blood but born in cuba, philipines ect. o Peninsulares – Spaniards born in spain Cuban Independence movement o A lot of criollos o Cuba was already waging war against spain, US intervenes Monroe Doctrine – Western hemisphere will be the American sphere of influence o America will be the most influencial nation o The U.S. essentially ejecting spain from the western hemisphere Filibusters – William Walker o Filibusters “people who talked a lot in the senate” o Recently used in the texas “ppl getting up and talking for 20 hours straight” o In early 19th century a filibuster were ppl who created private military expeditions to concur foreign south America in the name of US § William walker § These are private citizens launching military expeditions o A dream place to have for the filibuster world was Cuba § Filibusters were pre-­‐civil war phenomena § Cuba had slavery and seemed suitable to have • Good agriculture, sugar (especially) and tobacco • Sugar was extremely profitable but hard to grow so used slaves Mahan – influence of Sea Power Upon History (a book) o Great powers are defined by navy’s o Navel power is what make nations great o America starts producing a powerful navy § America is becoming a significant power Jose Marti in 1885 § Helped launch the last ___ § Analyzed the Spanish empire as declining and the U.S. coming up “Butcher” Weyler o establishes concentration camps • • • • • • • • • § bad hygiene, disease Yellow Journalism: Remember the Maine o Emotional à arouse passion, dramatic – dominant o “OUTRAGE” o “amazing medical discovery for women who couldn’t produce milk and it claimed to shine a green light on their head and it will produce more” § Bullshit o Could whip up US support –“remember the Mainel” battleship sunk § Claimed Spanish did this and this “remember the Mainel” becomes the rallying cry for war against spain § Drove U.S. to war Teddy Roosevelt o Raised an army “the rough riders” colorful army o Becomes president o San Juan Hill § Took credit from black troops and becomes famous Manila Bay Cuba after the war decides to write a new constitution called the Platt Amendment o America can come an intervene in cuba whenever they want o U.S. set up a navel base (Guantanamo bay) o Cuban politics claim a plattist Mentality-­‐ § Means the best a brightest Cuban tend to not join gov. because corruption Philippine Insurrection o Talks about the wake of the war o The U.S. fight a more bloody war in the Philippines than Spanish war Mark Twain: Blessing of Civilization Trust o Birth of anti-­‐war movement Puerto Rico o Puerto Rico is a colony o Unincorporated territory of the U.S. o Didn’t get to vote for gov. nor president o Get citizenship but don’t vote for congress, pres., gov. ect. o Benefits: very poor compared to U.S. but rich compared to Caribbean Is the U.S. and Empire? o Discussion § What is an empire? • Projecting power in foreign lands • A group of territories under a single rule • One entity with extreme power • Teacher: start acquiring oversea territory • None of this matters Progressivism notes for board o Progressive era around 1900-­‐1918 o Everyone wanted to call themselves progressives o Significant progressives: § Franz Boas-­‐ father of discipline of cultural anthropology, German Jewish immigrant, • Culture is what makes people who they are (culture in which their raised) • He is a scientist, you can understand the world better through science John Dewey • Pragmatism-­‐ whats the meaning of life, how can we use philosophy to help better the world • It is important that people are educated overall • Have a conscious idea of how to better schools so that people come out better • Can we measure the usefulness of an idea § Jane Addams • Sediment house movement-­‐ middle class ppl disconnected from people living in poverty and help uplift them • At the same time we will learn from them • Inner city of Chicago-­‐ chaotic type of place, common for ppl to die in fires (10 ppl a day) o Jacob Riis-­‐ “Bandit’s Roost” from How the Other Half Lives, 1890 • Lewis Hine-­‐ photo journalist o “powerhouse mechanic” 1920 • There will be English classes, child care (development of a child, a place where you can leave your kid that is good) § Immigration map • Impact of immigration to 1920 • south less than 10%, NY had nearly 3 million immigrants, § Margaret Sanger • Reproductive Freedom-­‐ affective and affordable birth control • Article “what everybody should know” – the fed gov. declared that women should know nothing • Believer in Eugenics-­‐ a belief that there are racial superiorities. o Believe this is a scientific endeavor (pseudoscience) Progressivism in the political arena o Assassination of William McKinley § Leon Czolgosz • Assassin considered himself antagonist? § Teddy Roosevelt in 1912 (was VP then Mckinley gets killed and he becomes pres.) • They Considered Most imp. Pres since Lincoln • Odd route for presidency • Radical republican • Top 3 bullets might go to McKinley? Ask connor • Trust Busting-­‐ beef trust, dominate the beef industry, Oligopoly, o Sherman anti-­‐trust act-­‐ gave gov power to break up monopoly’s, labor unions • Says big business’s are good, cheaper goods, employ by the thousands • When they abuse power then he broke them up o Consumer reform-­‐ § Upton Sinclair wrote book (The Jungle) – Muckraker • Filth and rats in • The conditions of life that laborers work and live like • Rats in sausage § • Patent Medicine industry • Dr. Steve’s Miracle Elixir o Could have Opium, coca, alcohol, caffeine ect. • Not many consumer labeling • Legal to just go in a store a buy a vial of opium o Thousands addicted § Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) § Bully Pulpit • President saying he is for the American people (presidents job to set the agenda for the country) o Big Stick diplomacy, Roosevelt Corollary § “Tred lightly and carry the big stick” § Panama 1903 – Canal zone • Columbian dispute, America helps to form the new nation of panama and the rights to the canal zone, building the Panama canal, a lot of American trade starts going through § Dominican Republic 1904 • Pay their debts to America § Cuba 1906 – disputed election • This is a diplomacy, America just points its guns and people do what they say • Trade will build peace • Scott Joplin and Ragtime EXAM o He will give some guide and then the rest will be on notes and random ppl ect. Triangle Shirtwaist fire-­‐ bodies lying on the sidewalk o Shirtwaist factory goes up in flames and the women cant get out because the fire escapes where locked because they thought women where sneaking smoke breaks o Jumped out windows instead of burning to death Progressive Labor Reforms: o The “New Immigrants” – factory workers o Journalist McAlister Coleman-­‐ strike of immigrant garment workers in NY, headed by teen-­‐ age Clara where they get beaten viciously o Uprising of 20,000 strikers o International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union o Women’s Trade Union o Child Labor-­‐ 1900, 1/6 of children were between the ages of 5-­‐10 o Lewis Hine “Trapper Boy” 1908 – 5-­‐8 year old boy in a coal mine o IWW – Industrial Workers of the World (syndicalism) § “I Wont Worker” § every worker in the world will join into 1 giant union and one day they all go on strike, industries will go down, gov. will be dismantled • known as syndicalism o Triangle shirtwaist Fire—1911—146 dead o Feminism-­‐ claimed that girls cant do much because of their reproductive o Ludlow Massacre – 1914 – United Mine Workers § • • • • CF&I, created company towns where they own the business which they basically own the town § 1913 they went on strike, when going on strike since it’s a company town they had to abandon their homes § Militia attacks the tent colony (set up by strikers in the company town) • 13 women and children died • turned into a war zone • had guns, dynamite, blew up mines, killed mine soldiers § Woodrow Wilson and Moral Imperialism • Haiti—begins 20 year occupation o Occupy Haiti, very poor nation o During occupation New Haitian constitution passes 98, 225 to 768 o Forced labor, rebellion National Park System o Environmentalism becomes huge cause of progressive era o John Muir – Sierra Club § Yosemite § Believed some places in nature need to be preserved § First national park – Yellowstone national park o Roosevelt o William Howard Taft § Bathtub § Obese and wouldn’t fit in the Whitehouse bathtub § Roosevelt was pissed at taft because he thinks taft has gotten in the way of his progressive vision § Roosevelt had a far bigger vision and taft was not a visionary to continue the vision § Roosevelt comes out of retirement and runs for president again (as a republican) § BullMoose party – progressive party • Roosevelt joined this party § 4 candidates (in order of popular votes) • Woodrow Wilson (wins) • Ted Roosevelt • William Taft • Eugene Debs o Woodrow Wilson § Virginian intellectual, college professor who embarks on political career and becomes president § Believed big business’s needed to be broken up § Most racist American president Race in the Progressive Era o Film Birth of a Nation-­‐ 1915 § Shows Negative side of progressivism § Linchings going on (black men accused of raping white women) o Booker T. Washington § Didn’t believe in African inferiority § Advised AA’s to cast their buckets where you are § • • § § • • Said black people should prove themselves, once proved themselves they will be considered equals Washington is challenged by W.E.B. DuBois • PHD from Harvard (first black man) • Argued that their was a “Talented Tenth”-­‐ every tenth person is talented o Elitist • Founded the NAACP o Would hold protests informing movie goers that what they were seeing was inaccurate o Said there should be black professors, doctors, etc. • DuBois publishes book called “Souls of Black Folk” o Had sorrow songs of black people Sports • Most popular in this time was baseball • Ty cob? – suspended from baseball o Suspended because: someone in crowd was talking shit and being racist and he goes into the crowd and beats the shit out of him which ppl state he only had one arm EXAM o D2L Documents o 2 IDs (given 3 or 4 and you choose 2) § who is it what is it whats its significance § essay 60% documents, ...
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