17_Motor - Motor Mechanisms Home Page 2006: D. Julian Three...

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1 Motor Mechanisms © 2006: D. Julian Home Page Three modes of transport There are three main modes of animal locomotion: 1) Swimming fish, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds, some insects, etc. 2) Running , including walking, crawling, trotting, etc . all terrestrial animals 3) Flying birds, insects, mammals (only bats), reptiles (extinct) © 2006: D. Julian Swimming © 2006: D. Julian
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2 Running © 2006: D. Julian Flying © 2006: D. Julian Skeletons Three types of skeletons: 1. Hydrostatic skeleton cnidarians, flatworms, nematodes and annelids 2. Exoskeleton arthropods (crustaceans, insects, etc.), most molluscs (clams, snails, etc.) 3. Endoskeleton sponges, chordates © 2006: D. Julian
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3 Hydrostatic skeleton Campbel and Reece, Fig. 49. Fluid is held under pressure in a closed body compartment. The animal’s form and movement is controlled by contraction of muscles surrounding the fluid-filled cavities (decreasing the cavity diameter increases its length, and vice versa ). © 2006: D. Julian Human skeleton Divided into axial skeleton (green) and appendicular skeleton (gold). Bones are connected to each other by fusion, ligaments or joints.
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17_Motor - Motor Mechanisms Home Page 2006: D. Julian Three...

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