Western Civ Exam2 study guide - Western Civ Exam 2(1...

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Unformatted text preview: Western Civ Exam 2 (1): Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-­‐1821) -­‐Emperor and military leader from 1804-­‐1812 -­‐Head of French and Italian armies (successful) -­‐5’3” but very powerful -­‐Supporter of the French Revolution and Robespierre -­‐Born into upper class family and marries upper class Nobel French woman -­‐helps stabilize France economically and socially -­‐“Coup d’ etat”: -­‐“strike against the state” -­‐Secretly contacted in 1799 to overthrow The Directory (5 middle class men) and given position of the “First Consul” of France. -­‐Went from the “French Directory” to the “French Consulate” *Responsible for the “Continental System”, “Invasion of Russia”, and other political and social movements for the French Empire. -­‐Smashes Holy Empire around Europe *Conquered everywhere in Europe except Britain and Russia (but those two began ally relations in spite of Napoleon à “Berlin Decree”) -­‐1815: Begins to move North with old army and became an emperor again with thousands of followers after escaping from the Island of Elba. -­‐Recaptured and seized and taken to St. Helena where he dies in 1821 (2): The “Continental System”: -­‐French foreign policy under Napoleon 1. -­‐Tactic to get British and Russia under his belt by blocking all trade (1806-­‐1814: “Berlin Decree”=large scale embargo against Britain) -­‐Devastates Britain but begins trade with US and Russia to self-­‐sustain -­‐This was an attempt to cause inflation and great debt for the UK *Bonaparte’s plan: with UK being an island nation, they rely heavily on trade. If embargo was implemented, Britain would suffer economically, thus making it easier to invade after economic collapse. (3): Invasion of Russia (1812): -­‐Napoleon 1 creates French army of 750,000 to defeat Russia after failure to abide by the British trade embargos (“Grande Armee”) -­‐Turning point in the Napoleonic Wars -­‐“Grande Armee” crossed the River Neman and headed into Moscow -­‐Weakened French control in Europe -­‐400,000 killed, 100,000 capturedàonly about 100,000 travel back to France -­‐Big cause for Napoleon downfall -­‐Prussia and Austrian Empire broke their alliance with France -­‐Army headed back in October 1812 due to harsh winters and spreading wildfires -­‐Bloody battle (Russian Guerilla warfare) -­‐“Battle of Leipzig” (October 1813): -­‐aka the “Battle of Nations” -­‐Russia Prussia Austria Sweden vs. France -­‐French loses horriblyàNapoleon forced to abdicate and killed in 1815 -­‐after escaping from Island Elba **Napoleonic Era done in 1815 (4): Congress of Vienna (1814-­‐1815): -­‐Called for by Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria -­‐settle issues between France and Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, Austria from the Napoleonic Wars, French Revolutionary Wars, and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. -­‐Meant to protect areas with trade balance and economic stability (“league of nations” in Europe) (1): France would return to its boarders from 1792 before all wars began (2): France will now be a monarchy rather than an Empire àKing of France is now Louis XVIII (little bro of Louis XVI) àLouis XVIII proceeded by King Charles X (5): Louis-­‐Phillepe (1773-­‐1850): -­‐Took over after King Charles X, ruled for 18 years (1830-­‐1848) -­‐Ruled in the interest of the French upper-­‐middle class (much more liberal than Charles X) -­‐Known as the “Bourgeoisie King”àfirst king to dress as a Bourgeoisie (banker) -­‐Expanded voting rights to the upper-­‐middle class instead of just aristocracy (liberal) -­‐but the lower classes were very unhappy and rioted b/c they wanted a Republic instead of a monarchy -­‐The people barricaded and stormed the city so nothing could function (businesses) -­‐The army refused to take action b/c they agreed with the people’s rebellion -­‐Louis-­‐Phillepe lost confidence and fled France too -­‐Radical Republicans: AFTER Louis-­‐Phillepe -­‐briefly took over France for modifications from Louis-­‐Phillepe -­‐abolish monarchy and set up a republic (every man over 25 has right to voteà9 million people would be able to voteàalso provide welfare to the poor) (6): “June Days” -­‐3 day war: (June 24-­‐June 26, 1848) -­‐Bloodiest example of warfare in Europe -­‐10,000 killed or injured and thousands more imprisoned -­‐Working class vs. middle class -­‐middle class won on the third day due to guerilla fashion attacks and General Cavaignac (although the working class held its own on the streets of Paris) -­‐Working class set back 20 years from defeat of Working class -­‐Mood in France: Law and order, no anarchy in the streets, feelings of upper-­‐middle class wanted someone in power to take charge -­‐WORKING CLASS WANTED: (1): France to be a Republic (not back to a monarchy) (2): Should have a strong executive leader who takes care of law and order -­‐marked the end of hopes of democratic and social republic (victory for liberals over the Radical Republicans) -­‐thousands of working class deported to Algeria and “Devil’s Island” -­‐Elections were held for new president (General Cavaignac and Louis-­‐Napoleon volunteered) *Elections held and LOUIS-­‐NAPOLEON BONAPARTE (Napoleon III) was elected (7): Louis-­‐Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon III): -­‐Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I) -­‐President of the 2nd Republic (1848-­‐1852) -­‐France now declared as a republic again -­‐Won the election by a landslide -­‐“You elect me and I will bring back some of that glory”-­‐referring to the glory days from Nap I -­‐Elected solely off the successes of his Uncle -­‐Many illiterate people thought they were voting for Napoleon I -­‐2nd Republic: -­‐ruled for 3 years as president -­‐feeling upset he was only president instead of Emperor like his Uncle -­‐decided to establish a new form of government -­‐December 2, 1851: brought about his own “Coup de ‘tat”àvery successful -­‐This ended the 2nd Republic -­‐disbanded parliament -­‐Jailed anyone against his movement -­‐June 1852: claimed himself Emperor and then named the FRENCH 2nd EMPIRE nd (8): French 2 Empire: -­‐1852-­‐1870: founded on illegality b/c he founded it on the constitution he swore to -­‐Tried to compensate for the wants for republic (3 ways to compensate the people (legitimizing 2nd Empire) (1): Spectacles: made people believe that new Empire was magical, appears France is always good and a nice, progressive town. -­‐1855 and 1857: World fairs held in Paris -­‐1856: Peace treaty for the Crimean War -­‐Hired Baron Haussmann: Civic Planner to beautify Paris -­‐took 7/10 of inner city to replace it with modern architecture -­‐Distraction to the public (2): Material Progress: Progress to happen b/c the Industrial Revolution is on its way -­‐Put in more railroads, factories, steam ship lines, and the SUEZ CANAL( 1869: don’t have to go around Africa to get to India now from France) -­‐Hyped up everything being built to give off light to the public -­‐BUT: Germany was becoming much more advanced than France (which will later serve as a problem) (3): Overseas Adventures and Military Conquests: -­‐Involved himself in 4 foreign entanglements all to try to produce glory -­‐Each FAILED miserably: 1. MexicoàMaximilian I in charge, but killed and no progress 2. Italy overtake 3. Crimean Waràdidn’t get what expected from Russia 4. Franco-­‐Prussian waràcaptured on battlefield-­‐End of 2nd Empire rd **1870: French 3 Republic (10): Prince Klemens von Metternich -­‐4th Foreign Minister of Austria -­‐Called for the “Congress of Vienna” in Vienna, Austria (capital) -­‐Extreme Conservative who was against ideologies from French Revolution (1): Liberalism (2): Nationalism ( “Leve en Masse” French army draft) -­‐Acts as the guardian over Central Europe: willing to crush both these wherever and whenever they appeared -­‐Looked for ways to forbid FRATS from campus’àspy murdered so this was a good opportunity -­‐Single individual who decided what things looked like in Central Europe from 1815-­‐1848. -­‐Makes important decisions for German policy (keeping them conservative) *Age of Metternich (11): Frankfort Assembly (“Parliament”) -­‐May 1848-­‐May 1849 in Germany -­‐Tried and FAILED to create a unified German state during the liberal revolutions -­‐2 tasks to achieve: (1): How to create a German state (Federal government) (2): Liberalize this state as much as possible (opposing Metternich) -­‐600 Delegates elected to the Assemblyàwell-­‐intentioned but unsuccessful -­‐all 600 middle-­‐class -­‐no political experience (most school teachers, pastors, writers) -­‐no ACTUAL power for decision-­‐making -­‐Unsupported by Prussia and Austria so it did not survive *RESULT: Liberals at Frankfort Assembly didn’t achieve fucking anything b/c with lack of power, there was no way to make the Princes or Aristocrats accept these terms (12): The “Greater Germany” Solution: -­‐“Grossdeutsch” Solution -­‐Under Emperor Franz Josef (Austria) -­‐Germany becomes frightening power -­‐Aim to unify German countries and all German-­‐speaking nations -­‐Reunite the Austrians and Prussians under one German rule (13): The “Smaller Germany” Solution: -­‐“Kleindeutsch” solution -­‐only unify the Northern German states and NOT Austria (favored by the Kingdom of Prussia) -­‐Prussia dominates Germany (14): Realpolitik (Politics of Reality): -­‐Masterminded by OTTO VON BISMARK -­‐Power politics -­‐NEW Germany -­‐1850’s-­‐1860’s -­‐use force and brutality to get what they want -­‐power and practical considerations (Realism) > ideologies or ethical premises -­‐Germany to become radically conservative rather than liberal (15): Prince Otto Von Bismark (1815-­‐1898): -­‐Prussian First Chancellor to Wilhelm I of the Kingdom of Prussia -­‐Foreign minister of Prussia in (1862) -­‐Shrudest leader of Russia -­‐He was a “junker” (old landed aristocracy-­‐rich through landàowned plantations w/ German workers) -­‐Personally overbearing, intensly loyal to junkers -­‐only loyal to Prussia (NOT a Nationalist) -­‐Conservative defender to the status quo -­‐Intimidating -­‐Hating industrialismàtaking over his land -­‐“Blood and Iron” famous speech in 1862àintroducing “Realpolitik” motives -­‐“The way to achieve great deeds is not through debate and discussion but by blood and iron” -­‐waged 3 wars (1): Danish War -­‐Germany vs. Denmark over “Schleswig” and “Holstein” àAustria and Prussia get the lands and Bismark prepares war with Austria b/c needs to occupy to create a German state. (2): Austro-­‐Prussian War -­‐“The Seven Weeks War” -­‐Prussians invade Austria and took 2 years to occupy it -­‐Prussia takes Schleswig and Holstein along w/ other landsàbecomes larger entity -­‐Bismark did NOT ask for an “INDEMNITY” (loser pays winner) -­‐“Don’t want to alienate anyone who you may need in a future war” -­‐(16) Ems Telegram: -­‐Telegram caused France to declare war with Prussia. -­‐Bismark intercepted and constructed telegram to insult the French Ambassador and Napoleon III -­‐said that Wilhelm I was disrespected by Nap III by not showing upàcaused tension b/w France and Germany and lead to the FRANCO-­‐PRUSSIAN WAR (Planned by Bismark) (3): Franco-­‐Prussian War *most important of the 3 wars -­‐Bismark to neutralize France as he did with Austria so France wouldn’t form a new German state -­‐Unified German state by neutralizing France’s allies (to get to France) -­‐France loses to Russia in 6 weeks (capturing of Napoleon III) -­‐Willing to destroy anything to gain a unified German state (17)The German Empire (Second Reich) (1871-­‐1918): Goals (ALL SUCCESSFUL): (1): Keep Europe status quo (one big family) (2): Keep France diplomatically isolated so France can’t strike back against Germany for humiliating defeat in Franco-­‐Prussian War (3): Maintain peace (no world wars) -­‐Germany is most powerful country in Europe besides Great Britain -­‐First in terms of Industrialization -­‐Most powerful equipped army in Europe -­‐Lasted until Germany was defeated in World War I (18) Bismark vs. Hitler: -­‐Bismark satisfied when he progressed in creating German state/Hitler always wanted more and never satisfied -­‐Bismark believed in Europe as a constellation of power states-­‐“Europe is a family of nations and we ought to get along like a family”. Hitler believed that Germany should dominate Europe, not just be a family member to Europe. Believed Germany was racially superior over other countries. -­‐Bismark was NOT a nationalist but only a Prussian loyalist. Hitler believed in Nationalism (19): Bismark’s Foreign Policy (1871-­‐1890): (1): 1873: “League of 3 Emperors” (1): Germany (2): Austria-­‐Hungary (3): Russia -­‐designed to maintain stability and prevent revolution and solidify Central Europe -­‐pact was not great, but represented what Bismark wanted (2): 1879: Duel Alliance -­‐alliance between Germany and Austria-­‐Hungary directed against Russia and France who would threatened Germany if they bonded together -­‐Conditions: (1): if Russia attacks Austria: Germany would defend Austria (2): if France attack Germany: Austria remains neutral unless Russia intervenes (3): if Russia involved: each nation will come to the other’s aid *this alliance remained corner stone for foreign policy until WWI (3): 1881: 3 Emperors Alliance: -­‐Any interference in Balkans by any 3 Empires will have discussion on further actions in Balkans -­‐If any 3 Empires want to go to war with France, the other two will not take sides (prevent WW) (4): 1887: Reinsurance Treaty: -­‐Russia and German treaty that guarantees Germany will never go to war with Russia so long as Russia does not align with France (secret, contradicted terms of the “duel alliance treaty”) *These alliances work. (20) Wilhelm II: -­‐New Kaiser (Emperor) of Germany and King of Prussia (1888-­‐1918) -­‐Grandson of Queen Victoria of England -­‐Dismissed Bismarkàlead to ideals of “THE NEW COURSE” which defended Austria-­‐Hungary and lead to WWI -­‐Rejected Bismark’s peace of nations ideologies -­‐Believed Germany is superior and should become an Empire to reflect on own power -­‐Believed in colonization -­‐Thought the stage of Europe was too smallàwanted bigger things -­‐29 years old when took control of Germany -­‐arrogant and overconfident (21) “The New Course” (1890-­‐1914): -­‐Wilhelm II Foreign Policy *Leads to mistakes that Bismark never would have made (1): Navy: Build a huge Navy for colonization that becomes 2nd only to Great Britain -­‐British feel alienated and begin to pull away support to Germany (2): Berlin-­‐Baghdad: Rail-­‐line connecting the two to bring closer relations -­‐upset France and Great Britain b/c shouldn’t be involved in Middle East (3): Reinsurance Treaty: Bismark set up in 1887 that no German vs. Russian war unless Russia allies with France. -­‐1890: Wilhelm II does NOT renew this treaty -­‐1894: Russia feels alienated and begins to side with France -­‐If Germany attacks-­‐side with each other -­‐Great Britain becoming allies as well -­‐France now out of isolation (that Bismark put in place) -­‐Germany becoming surrounded by allied powers (Bismark’s greatest fear) (4): Agadir Incident: Agadir, Morocco (important) in 1911 -­‐French troops into Morocco (“Second Moroccan Crisis”) -­‐This broke the treaty that ended the “First Moroccan Crisis” along with the Franco-­‐German Accord of 1909. -­‐Germany sent in troops via “gunboat Panther” in 1911. -­‐German plan: test relationship between Great Britain and France and to intimidate Britain into a German alliance. *RESULT: -­‐France implements a full “protectorate” for Morocco, taking away all independence in 1912. -­‐British and French relations stronger (along with Russia) -­‐The British “Royal Navy” would protect Northern France from any German attack **German position way back from Bismark (5): Balkan War: SE Europe, 1912-­‐1913 -­‐Roman Catholicism, Islam, Eastern Orthodox religions competing -­‐all under Ottoman Empire in Balkan Islands -­‐Nationalism: all religions wanted this -­‐Lead by Russiaàdefeated the Ottoman Empire and forced to relocate to Turkey -­‐Russia sides with Serbia, Germany sides with Austria-­‐Hungary -­‐Russia pussies the fuck out from Germany (22) Archduke Francis Ferdinand: -­‐Archduke of Austria and Royal Prince of Hungary -­‐On a goodwill, peace trip to prevent war with Serbia and allies -­‐Assassinated on June 28, 1914 in Saravejo, Austria-­‐Hungary by Gavrilo Princip (23): Gavrilo Princip: -­‐Member of the Serbian terrorist group the BLACK HAND -­‐Actually from Bosnia, but trained with Serbians -­‐19 years old when he assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife in a moving vehicle -­‐Shot Franz in his throat *When shot, Serbia refused access into the country for Austria-­‐Hungary to prosecute the “Black Hand” group and Princip, so Austria-­‐Hungary declared war on Serbia along with prospective allies. -­‐Austria-­‐Hungary looked to Germany for guidance, so Germany wrote them a “BLANK CHECK” (24) The Blank Check: -­‐Germany has to give a blank check to Austria-­‐Hungary for whatever they need in the Balkan War against Serbia and Russia. -­‐Serbia turned to Russia àGermany declares war on Russia Aug 1, 1914 and France on Aug 3, 1914 (due to Russia’s refusal of Germany’s plea to move the troops) (25) Black Hand -­‐Secret society based in Serbia, organized to train and recruit partisans for war against Austria. -­‐Responsible for the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand. -­‐Responsible for bringing a lot of hatred and bad feelings towards Serbia due to their involvement all over Europe. (26) Edmund Burke(1723-­‐1797) -­‐ European conservatism, Irishman. -­‐ Advocate of tradition àtraditional rights and liberties. -­‐ Not against all revolutions, could accept one in the name of restoring rights and liberties. -­‐ Organic conservatismàVery strong dislike of anyone/group that tries to impose top-­‐down government without being sensitive to long standing customs, habits. Take care to preserve and cherish anything that has come into existence naturally and has evolved over a period of time. -­‐ Strong hatred for French Revolutionists, and abstract intellectuals. (Robespierre) -­‐*Believes if something has lasted over time it must have worth. Long standing tradition gives continuity* -­‐ Distrusted common people, masses. -­‐Rejected equality. (27) Joseph de Maistre (1753-­‐1821) -­‐ Frenchman, so has more emotional connection to rejection of French revolution. -­‐ReactionaryàTraditional authority, what was overthrown in French revolution, wanted to keep authority going. Every revolution undermines traditional authority. -­‐ Distrusted common people(nature more evil than good), rejected equality, and revered tradition. -­‐Authoritarian Conservatism (Reactionary) à Not being patient and waiting for unfolding but forcefully restoring power structures. Establishing order and stability, necessary to keep society together. -­‐“The Pope or the Executioner”àIf religion fails there has to be violence. -­‐“The throne and the alter”àRestoring old royal houses, restore with vengeance. Through French revolution was sin against god; wanted to make people humble again. Believed arrogance of revolutionists brought France to this point. (28) Liberalism (Political) -­‐ Begins in enlightenment, accelerates from French Revolution into nineteenth century. -­‐ Belief that man is good. -­‐Believe in a defensive freedom and self-­‐determination; if people are good give them power. -­‐Strongly against any special group that carves out its own privileges. -­‐For a constitution, belief in progress, things getting better *DO THIS BY REFORM NOT REVOLUTION* -­‐Political ideology out of French Revolution/Enlightenment; idea of political determination, everyone should be treated equal. -­‐Rule and value of law. (29) Economic Liberalism -­‐Developed by middle-­‐class business community (Bourgeoisie) -­‐Created the theory of the Political Economyà Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Thomas Malthus: Early Liberalism -­‐Importance of free market; let capitalism run its course it will le...
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