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• • • Western Civilization ID’s Henry VIII (1491-‐1547) o king of England, good catholic o wanted to divorce wife named Kathrin of Aregon because didn’t have male babies, he forbids annates, Calls into question the infallibility of the pope Anglicanism -‐ Episcopalian church vs Roman Church The Catholic Reformation o the chuch used a catholic reformation to deal with the three rebellions § Rebellion of Lutheranism § Rebellion of Calvinism § Religious movement called Anglicanism by Henry VIII o What did the catholic church do? § They established a number of new organizations in the church of priests and nuns with much more dedicated and devoted priests/nuns • Society of Jesus-‐ named Jesuits (founded by St. Ignatius Loyola) § Catholic church brought about a renovation of church administration § The catholic church called for a council (council of Trent, 1545-‐
63) • Strengthened the church The council of trent (1545-‐63) o Results of the council of Trent § The bible alone isn’t the guide to life but the bible and tradition-‐(the 1500 years of Catholicism) § Faith and works are what merit heaven, just having faith that Jesus Christ is the savior will not get u into heaven but through good works u can get into heaven § Council of Trent eliminates the vast majority of abuses that have come into the catholic church (no selling of indulgences, policing for indulgences) • 7 sacraments § index of forbidden books-‐ no catholic can read § inquisition – panel to straighten out wrong ideas-‐ could be labeled as a heretic § pope was the supreme head of christianity Scientific Revolution (circa. 1600-‐1720) • • • • o Scientific Revolution (1600-‐1720) § Took place exclusively among intellectuals • About 5% (guessing) • Other 95% are still deeply in religion • A 2 tiered society § Scientific world view trickled down until it effected everyone creating society today The Enlightenment (1720/30-‐1790) o France was were it was centered o Others that had part of enlightenment § Poland § Germany § 13 colonies (1700s) o Enlightenment ppl still believed in god but not the church § God does exist, but he is not a personal God, he is not one that actively plays in each one of our lives Philosophes o Philosophes – the intellectuals of the enlightenment § Also attack social and political institutions that where incompatible with the enlightenment age § Scientists § Lawyers § Artists o 4 common assumptions that almost all philosophes shared § the enlightenment intellectuals took it for granted that the world up to their time has been steeped in myth and superstition, it was their task to destroy the hole of both myth and superstition on the human mind § God does exist but he is not a personal god who interferes with our daily lives § Truth is discovered through empiricism (the scientific method) § The proper way to conduct a life is discovered by means of reason Deism – there is a God o There is a god but he is not a personal god o There is a god, but the world functions with natural laws and no interference from God Empiricism (scientific or “inductive” method) o Empiricism – discovering the truth of anything like a scientist through direct observation or experimentation § Discovering the truth o A posteriori – the way to arrive at truth is “after experience” A process of arriving at the truth by gathering a great amount of data and facts then moving from these facts to general laws that seem to be warranted by the facts you have gathered A Priori – the way to arrive at truth is “prior to experience” § Starts with the assertion of general laws then moves to specific instances/examples of the general laws § Start with general principles then deduce Philosophes found inductive way of approaching the truth Rene Descartes (1596-‐1650) § Major philosopher, basically founded philosophy § Philosophes know this man and they are saying that Descartes is leading them in the wrong way § We are all born with innate ideas, clear and distinct ideas John Locke (1632-‐1704) § Philosophes found him as a better philosopher for their ideas § Tabula rasa (blank slate) § The mind is at a blank state and everything we come to know comes through our five senses § Famous sentence by locke – “there is nothing in the mind that is not first with the senses.” Empericism means – the inductive or the scientific method, worked on by john locke and philosophes. Arrive upward toward general assumptions § o o
o o o • Louis XIV (1661-‐1715) o The 14th, came to power in 1643 and ruled with advisors then when became 21 ruled alone as king (1661 began to rule alone) o Named the greatest king of France in the early modern period and he knew it (calls himself the sun king) § Used science to say that the earth and everything around revolves around the sun o Worked to centralize France in the name of his family (Bourbon family) o To maximize his power Louis XIV had to weaken nobles § Didn’t want people challenging his power o Builds a palace to reflect his glory/power § Largest building in the world when built, you could fit 10,000 people in it § Invites all nobles and ppl of power to stay in the building so he can control them all in one area, and that all where under the king, they become domesticated • Weakened his advisories and strengthened his power o Power at the top and dispersal of power under the ranks (Absolutism) (pgs. 480-‐483 is a good example of absolutism) • • Louis XV (1745-‐74) o He was the nephew of Louis XIV o Was a man of some intelligence but a person who was generally weak and without real ambition to work for France o Seemed like he enjoyed his own personal gain: 2 things § Seducing ladies in court and fox hunting • Didn’t pay attention to a lot of reforms which needed to be enacted • French economy was terrible o was in paris and got stabbed § found out that all through Paris only 6 churches prayed for him instead of 10,000 § changed his way once recovered. Apres moi, le deluge (after me, the deluge) Louis XVI (1779-‐92) o Louis XV 19 year old grandson o Had to front an accumulation of problems that where hardly addressed by Louis XV (mainly the financing of the state) o 1774-‐ French state was almost completely bankrupt § borrowed so heavily from Louis the 14th and 15th (building the palace ect.) o 1775-‐6, about ½ of all expenditures of the entire state was to pay for the interest on the debt o most was spent of the French military which wasn’t really needed at the time o whatever money was left after those 2 where spent for entertainment at court for the rich o money was spent on pensions from Louis’s friends (paid for by state) o France as a nation was actually rich and becoming richer § Had a rising middle class (pofessionals, artisans, scientists, engineers) • Aristocratics in france are sitting on a lot of money as well • (triangle form) at the top was the 2-‐3% aristocracy, next 20% was the artisans, engineers, the middle class in § general, below them was the 3rd element of the French which are the peasants, about 80%. How they got out of the Financial problem was by 2 ways: • He could increase taxes on the growing middle class and also peasant class o Consequence was that there might be a rebellion • Second choice would be that he could tax the wealthy aristocracy which had the most money ect. o Consequence would be that he would be undermining a certan conception of power top ppl that has been implied for years o Wouldn’t make them powerful but another taxable person o Natural superiors • 1780’s france had a serious of terrible harvests o not enough grain to send to marketers o raised the price of grain high which means bread was expensive which meant that the poor couldn’t even eat bread causing sometimes starvation • the estates general has not been used for 127 years but now its being pulled out to solve some problems o the estate general doesn’t look at the triangle as the same as stated above but more (3 estates which the top or the 1st was the clergy at .5% about 300 people representing 1st estate, 2nd estate was aristocracy so about 400-‐500k which was 2% of population which also had 300 ppl represent them, 3rd estate was everyone else which was about 25 mil about 97.5% of population which 600 people represented them which they thought was fair to double theirs even though they still had soo much more ppl) o 300,300,600 in which the top 2 estates would mainly be equal. Top 2 estates would normally win because it was usually a 2 to 1 vote o voting by head was to your advantage, need to get ppl on your estate by recognizing that you are ill represented ppl could go to the 3rd estate and win by more heads o finally settled that the voting will be by estate o 3% of people are gonna control the Estates General o (last 10 minutes of notes from connor) • • • • • Versailles o palace of Versailles (where the king stays) Ancient regime (‘old regime’) o Before 1789 Oath of the Tennis Court (june, 1789) o June 20, 1789 the national assembly found itself unable to get into their normal room for assembly so they ended up going to a tennis court § Made an Oath for 2 things: • wherever we meet and deliberate we are representative of 97.5% (we are the French nation) • we will not disband as an assembly unless a constitution is enacted o the national assembly is saying that they need rights laid out in a constitution The Bastille (july 14, 1789) o A huge plaza, and at the time one of the most hated building in Paris because it represented the king, the power at the top. o An impressive fortress in the middle of paris o Citizens heard that the bastille contained a lot of steel and guns o Walls where 90 feet high and 10 feet thick o Assembly said give us guns and gun powder and crowd didn’t believe and some people got across the mote and lowered the gate and everyone stormed in and 83 people died o hacked all the soldiers in their with their great numbers and beheaded delauney o the storming of bastille was a failure in which the crowd did not get what they want but this was a launching event Declaration of the Rights of man and citizen (Aug 1789) o Summed to about 4 things: §
§ § • The declaration proclaims that France from here on will be run by the rule of law, run by laws and not kings and wont let the top 3% do anything above the law Secondly, the declaration states that everyone in France has a natural right to “liberty, property, and security” Third thing is the statement of popular sovereignty, the power of the state does not lie in kings and aristocrats but the will of the people which can only be expressed through representative bodies (like parliament, house of rep. ect.) Lastly the declaration says that everyone in France must be taxed according to their wealth (no special exemptions) Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790) o Where and how can the French state get money to pay its debts § National Assembly (starting to control france now) starting to make most of the decisions now § To get money needed they proclaimed to seize all the churches valuables and all the land owned by the Catholic Church (almost about 10% of all of france owned by catholic church) • trillions of dollars in our terms § if they can take that land and divide them into parcels they could sell the land and buyers would buy the land from the state paying the state § with state action, the state would have to pay for the upkeep of the catholic church and their expenses • This leads to the “civil Constitution of the Clergy” (1790) o Reduced to 3 things: § Declares all church property is no longer independent (it is now gov. property) § Second it says all clergy are now public servants and employees of the state § Thirdly, state all priests in France must take a loyalty oath o Refractory clergy § Priests that refused to go along with the state § Some were arrested and others executed o This constitution was the greatest § First, It created an underground catholic church which opposed the regime § Secondly, the civil const. alienated the pope and destroyed his church, which turned against the reformation § § • • • Thirdly, it turned the catholic countries of Europe against france and set up a situation in which other countries would declare war on france because of the way france is treating the catholic church Lastly, lost a lot of support of many peasants Tuileries Palace o Where Louis XVI stayed when he was taken back to paris Marie Antoinette (wife of Louis XVI) o October 4th women decided as a group to march the 12 miles to versaille and present their problems directly to the king (need to make aware that people are starving) 5-‐6k women marched and also joined by 15k armed troops § When they get their the crowd broke in and raided the queens bedroom and she escaped through a secret passage and was able to make it to the king who was able to calm the crowd • Queen was Marie Antoinette o Greatly disliked by French people o She was a foreigner who was perceived as not one of us o “oh the people have no bread, well let them eat cake” o When Louis calmed the people the crowd forced the king and queen to take up residence in the middle of paris (wanted to make sure he is on top of what he does all the time) so people could watch him Estates General o 1780’s france had a serious of terrible harvests § not enough grain to send to marketers § raised the price of grain high which means bread was expensive which meant that the poor couldn’t even eat bread causing sometimes starvation o the estates general has not been used for 127 years but now its being pulled out to solve some problems § the estate general doesn’t look at the triangle as the same as stated above but more (3 estates which the top or the 1st was the clergy at .5% about 300 people representing 1st estate, 2nd estate was aristocracy so about 400-‐500k which was 2% of population which also had 300 ppl represent them, 3rd estate was everyone § § §
• else which was about 25 mil about 97.5% of population which 600 people represented them which they thought was fair to double theirs even though they still had soo much more ppl) 300,300,600 in which the top 2 estates would mainly be equal. Top 2 estates would normally win because it was usually a 2 to 1 vote voting by head was to your advantage, need to get ppl on your estate by recognizing that you are ill represented ppl could go to the 3rd estate and win by more heads finally settled that the voting will be by estate 3% of people are gonna control the Estates General National Assembly o May 1789, leader of 3rd estate took the radical step to be the “national assembly” § They have a case because they are 97.5% of the population § This is a radical act o Some members of the first 2 classes felt that the 3rd estate was undertreated so they joined the 3rd estate, very happy to gain support from these ppl o From may into june the national assembly met on its own, even though its very existence was a debut to the king o the king faultered and didn’t know what to do and let the assembly keep meeting right under his nose § was afraid what would happen if he tried to suppress everyone § called into action 20k soldiers near versille o for awhile everyone is at a stalemate Gov. Delauney the “Great Fear” o Tension shifts from versille and paris into the rural areas of france § It seemed that rumors spread out all over the French nation • Rumors got more exaggerated and incorrect o this is called the “Great Fear” o people believe aweful things are happening such that the king has hired brigades (thugs) o armed thousands of armed thugs and they are gonna clean up the peasantry o peasants start to arm themselves and wait for the thugs to come down the road o no thugs came § someone suggested to channel their energies at the landlords, aristocrats and other obligations peasants owed to their lords § if they burn them down there will be no records of debts on what they own to their lords o Although that National Assembly didn’t like the destruction that was goin on, it nevertheless supported the peasants § This lead to a declaration that was issued (aug 4 1789) saying they are abolishing many things such as: serfdom (millions of peasants found themselves as slaves, bound to the land), also abolished feudalism, and abolishes all aristocracy privileges, all personal tax exemptions for the aristocracy are eliminated so everyone gets taxed similar to commoners § Paris and other towns loved all these removals and are full supportive of the National assembly o Aug 4 1789, there was an act that abolished: serfdom, Feudalism, special aristocratic privileges, and aristocratic tax exemptions § Has no name, was just an Act Reign of Terror • Tribunals – set up all around france that would get rid of people who were against the revolution • The Guillotine – chops off peoples heads cleanly o Discovered by a medical doctor and gave his own name to it • Summer 1793-‐94 o ½ million French men/women were imprisoned (1/50 people) o 40-‐60k killed o Maximilien Robespierre (pg 590-‐91)(pg600-‐601) look him up § Was even more punishing in his violence against enemies of the revolution • Who was an enemy? Almost everyone he said was o Were ever he is is the safe zone § Radicals supported Robespierre § Robespierre said “whats the point of a revolution unless it goes down to the people at the bottom of society” § Was incorruptible, didn’t do anything for extra money or anything • Maximilien Robespierre • Summer 1793-‐94 o ½ million French men/women were imprisoned (1/50 people) o 40-‐60k killed o Maximilien Robespierre (pg 590-‐91)(pg600-‐601) look him up § §
§ • • • • Was even more punishing in his violence against enemies of the revolution • Who was an enemy? Almost everyone he said was o Were ever he is is the safe zone Radicals supported Robespierre Robespierre said “whats the point of a revolution unless it goes down to the people at the bottom of society” Was incorruptible, didn’t do anything for extra money or anything Sans culottes o people without kneebreaches (wearing kneebreaches almost certainly ment you were middleclass) o the poor “Thermidorian Reaction” o Thermidorian Reaction of 1794 § August. Robespierre is ceased by modest members of the French gov. and killed him quickly before his supporters rallied § Pendulum swings from extreme to moderate -‐> reaction (the extremists are no longer in power but the moderates are) The Directory (1795-‐1799) o Consisted of 5 men § Middle class § Moderate in political opinions § Guided france for 4 years after the death of Robespierre § None of the members had the talent to be effective political leaders § Top 5% benefited from directory but everyone did not like the directory Napolean bonepart o was asked to help overthrow the directory § dismissed both and overtook government o great military person o Coupd’etat § Overthrowing of the state o Ruled 1799-‐1815 ...
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