Korean 50 midterm study guide key terms - Korean 50 Midterm...

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Korean 50 Midterm Study Guide-Key Terms1. Tan’gun/Old ChosŏnTan’gun early leaders of Old Choson, combined political and religious functions in singlepersonage, said to have descended from sun godThe most advanced of the first societies with articulated political structures4thcentury B.C.southern Manchuria or near PyongyangHad combined with other walled-town states to form single large confederated kingdom, theocracy, multi-ethnicGradual decline due to pressure from Chinese state of Yen, fell to Ch’in empire and then Han dynasty of ChinaTan’gun-established Choson 2333 BCE, mythical origins shows different from normal human beings (bear and tiger asked to be human, had to live in cave and eat garlic and wormwood 100 days, tiger failed, bear became woman, birth to lord’s son Tan’gun), reigned over 1500 years, can be considered embodiment of first Great Shaman, suggests consciousness of China and need to legitimize civilization as worthy of Chinese recognition yet gain autonomy from Chinese, gave Korea its people and basic culture2. Koguryŏ (37 BCE668 CE)Founder=Chumong- good at archery, born from an egg, supernatural help when fleeing enemies-fish formed bridge for him to cross riverOne of “the Three Kingdoms,” earliest political entity on Korean peninsula, highly stratified society, sophisticated, advanced civilization1stcentury BCE to 7thcentury CENorthernmost kingdom-northern half of Korean peninsula all the way to ManchuriaGreat representative of early Korean civilization due to geographical dominion, military prowess, cultural achievements like tomb wall paintings, political and religious authority, most consistent challenge to Chinese dominance 3. King Kwanggaet’o (r.391413)Ruler of KoguryoName means “extender of territory,” “Great Expander of the Kingdom”Late 4th- early 5thcenturyKoguryoSought to expand Koguryo’s territory in all directions (fought many battles for this), achieved early peak in Koguryo’s power, achievements recorded in stele4. Silla (57 BCE-935 CE)Kingship among 3 clans, Queens Sondok and Chinkdok from Pak clan, these two queens were ruling monarchs, not wife of KingsLongest lasting kingdom, one of “the Three Kingdoms”6thc BCE to 10thcenturyIn what is today S. Korea
Bone Rank system, relative gender equality, great state and military power, boom in trade, science, arts (ex. first observatory), Buddhism flourishes, used Tang China as ally to defeat Koguryo, took over Kougryo/Paekche/Kaya and “unified” peninsula, Hwabek council (aristocratic interests) vs. Chancellery office (royal interests)5. Bone-Rank System: Hallowed Bones, True Bones, Head RanksHallowed bones (royal house)-means holy bones, True-bones (aristocrats)-disgruntled b/ccannot become king, second best, Headranks 6-1 (probably 3-1 were commoners)Silla social status system based on parentage, determined spheres and manner of social interaction, marriage possibilities, tax/service obligations, bureaucratic office eligibility520-10thcenturySilla-Korean peninsula into China

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