biochsummaries

biochsummaries - Biology 13 Exam 1 Notes Chapter 3 Chiral4...

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Biology 13 Exam 1 Notes Chapter 3 Chiral 4 different constituents Ionized vs Non-Ionized (ion or not, H+) Carboxyl group + amino group (condensation rxn) peptide bond Amine acids < 50 = oligopeptide or peptide Amino acids >50 = protein Secondary: peptide bond backbond (H-O bonds between amino and carboxyl) Alpha helix / beta pleated sheet, Ramachandran plot Tertiary Structure side chain interactions 1. Covalent bonds between sulfur in cysteine (bridges) 2. Hydrophilic: close b/c of water; stabilized by van der Waals interactions (steric hindrance) 3. Ionic Bonds 4. Hydrogen Bonds Quaternary Structure: Bonding of 2 or more polypeptide subunits ATP Most natural reactions are endergonic (need energy) ATP adds free energy by adding a phosphate group ATP ADP o Phosphorylation Sometimes enzyme is phosphorylated (lower activation energy, add free energy) o Phosphorylation makes things exergonic o Enzyme catalysis makes reactions go fast Chapter 4 Nucleic Acid Monomer: nucleotide 1. Phosphate group 2. 5-carbon Sugar 3. Nitrogenous base Pyrimidines: Cytosine (C), Uracil (U)[RNA] Thymine (T)[DNA] Purines: Guanine (G), Adenine (A) Nitrogenous base: Carbon #1, sugar Phosphate Group: Carbon #5, sugar
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Polymerization of Nucleotides: Phosphodiester linkage Condensation reaction for nucleotides 5’ 3’ New nucleotides bond to the 3’ Carbon Endergonic (needs enzymes) Complementary base paring (A T/U, C G) DNA is an information carrying molecule RNA Structure and Funcation 1. Uracil 2. Ribose a. Hydroxyl (OH) group attached to C-2’ is much more reactive than Hydrogen in DNA RNA One Strand hairpin -template -not as stable as DNA; much more likely to degrade/hydrolize RNA as a catalytic molecule ribozymes (RNA enzymes) Chapter 5 Monosaccharides Classifications Aldehyde Sugar (Aldose) Ketone Sugar (Ketose) # of Carbons Carbons in a monosaccharide numbered from end closest to nearest carboxyl group Spatial arrangements of atamons Positions of hydroxyl (OH) α glucose β glucose (A-town down) hysroxyl group down
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Polysaccharide Glycosidic linkage condensation reaction for monosaccharides hydroxyl groups on 2 monosaccharides undergo a condensation reaction Starch α 1,4 glycosidic linkage α Glucose α Glucose Unbranced Helix or not-highly branched helix 2 types: Amylose (branched) Amylopectin (branched), ~every 30 PLANTS!!! Glycogen α 1,4 glycosidic linkage Highly Branched (~every 10) ANIMALS!!! Cellulose β 1,4 glycosidic linkage gridlike, parallel strands joined by hydrogen bonds PLANTS!!!-->major component of cell walls Flipped in relation to adjacent maximizes H-bonds ergo, strength Most abundant Chitin β 1,4 glycosidic linkage with N-acetyl glucosamine Parallel bonds joined by hydrogen bonds like cellulose, but instead of glucose, N-acetyl glucosamine (NAc) Peptidoglycan β 1,4 glycosidic linkage with: N acetyl muramic acid N acetyl glucosamine Amino acid chain Adds new w/ amino acide chain peptide bond
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course BIO 13 taught by Professor Mclaughlin during the Fall '07 term at Tufts.

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biochsummaries - Biology 13 Exam 1 Notes Chapter 3 Chiral4...

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