PSY335Ch9 - Chapter 9 Language Development 17:39:00...

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Chapter 9- Language Development 24/03/2008 17:39:00 - Components of Language - Phonology: refers to the rules governing the structure & sequence of speech sounds. Semantics: vocabulary-the way underlying concepts are expressed in words and word combinations. Grammar Syntax: rules that arrange words into sentences Morphology: use of grammatical markers that indicate number, tense, case, person, gender, active or passive voice, etc… Pragmatics: rules for engaging in appropriate & effective communication. Broca’s Area: located in the frontal lobe, supports grammatical processing and language production Wernicke’s Area: located in the temporal lobe, plays a role in comprehending word meaning. The Behaviorist Perspective (Skinner) Language is acquired through operant conditioning & imitation. The Nativist Perspective (Chomsky & Pinker) Language is uniquely a human accomplishment & innate disposition. *LAD Language Acquisition Device - innate system. Case of Genie “sensitive period” during brain lateralization. Her grammar & communication skills remained limited after tutoring. The Interactionist Theory 1. ) Information-Processing Theory: neural connections that represent adult usages strengthen, while primitive or incorrect connections weaken. Statistical Learning Theory: infants identify basic patterns of language with the same strategies that they use to make sense of their nonlinguistic experiences. 2.) Social Interaction Theory: strong desire to understand others & to be understood by them, surrounded by a rich language environment combine to help children discover the functions, regularities & social meanings of language. Receptivity to Language
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- Learning Native-Language Sound Categories & Patterns - Phonemes: the smallest sound units that signal a change in meaning, such as the difference b/w consonant sounds ‘pa’ & ‘ba’ Categorical Speech Perception: cultural tendency to perceive a range of sounds as identical that belong to the same phonemic class. - Adult Speech to Young Language Learners - Child-Directed Speech (CDS): a form of communication made up of short sentences with high-pitched, exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation, distinct pauses b/w speech segments, & repetition of new words in a variety of contexts. o Ex.) “See the ball” “ The ball bounced!” “I love that ball!” - First Speech Sounds - Cooing: vowel-like noises @ 2 months Babbling: repeat consonant-vowel combinations in long stings @ 4 months - Becoming a Communicator – Joint Attention: child attends to the same object or event as the caregiver @ 4 months. 4-6 months: turn taking & give/take conversation - Pre Verbal Gestures @ 9-12 months - Protodeclarative: the baby touches an object, holds it up, or points to it while looking at others to make sure they notice.
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