american polotics chap 7 n 8

american polotics chap 7 n 8 - CHAPTER 7: U.S. Parties: Who...

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CHAPTER 7: U.S. Parties: Who Has a Voice? *responsible parties - a scholarly ideal in which parties fulfill their democatic character by forming consistent & meaningful ideologies & programs that become well known to the oters & in which the winning party is held ccountable *dominant two-party system - the idea that Democrats & Republicans together control the electoral machinery & legal frameworks that promote their near monopoly on most political offices. while third parties are no prohibited in the U.S., the two-party systerm tends to perpetuate itself through single0member *single-member (winner-take-all) electoral system - the principle & practice of electing only one representative for a given electoral district. Typically, the winner receives a plurality of the votes cast. Ubiquitous in the U.S., single- member districts contrast with other forms of representation is shared in a given electoral district based on the proportion of votes received. Single-member districts help to sustain the two-party system, & some say white domination of the House of Representatives & state legislatures, by depriving third-party challengers or candidates of color of any representation unless candidates receive a plurality. *proportional representation - an electoral system in which legislators are elected at large & in which parties receive electoral representation in proportion to the percentage of total votes they receive. *Electoral College system - the body of electors, whose composition is determined by the results of the general election in each state, that chooses the president & vice president of the United States. Winning candidates must garner a majority of the 540 electoral votes. *gerrymandering - the practice of drawing electoral districts to favor one outcome over another, named after eighteenth-century Massachusetts politician Elbridge Gerry. In recent years, gerrymandering has been used in most states to ensure the reelection of incumbents of both parties. More controversial is the recent use of gerrymandering in Texas & elsewhere by Republicans to unseat incumbent Democrats. *critical (realigning) election - an election that shapes entire electoral eras; it features increased voter turnout & a reshuffling of the social groups that support each party, resulting in the comination of one party in succeeding elections. *party regime - the long-term domination of one party of most of the political
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course APOLITICS 101 taught by Professor Miroff during the Fall '07 term at SUNY Albany.

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american polotics chap 7 n 8 - CHAPTER 7: U.S. Parties: Who...

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